Detection of spreading depolarizations in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model in swine

  • Modar KentarEmail author
  • Martina Mann
  • Felix Sahm
  • Arturo Olivares-Rivera
  • Renan Sanchez-Porras
  • Roland Zerelles
  • Oliver W. Sakowitz
  • Andreas W. Unterberg
  • Edgar Santos
Original Article - Vascular Neurosurgery - Ischemia
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Vascular Neurosurgery - Ischemia



The main objective of this study was to generate a hemodynamically stable swine model to detect spreading depolarizations (SDs) using electrocorticography (ECoG) and intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging and laser speckle flowmetry (LSF) after a 30-h middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion (MCAo) in German Landrace Swine.


A total of 21 swine were used. The study comprised a training group (group 1, n = 7), a group that underwent bilateral craniectomy and MCAo (group 2, n = 10) and a group used for 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium (TTC) staining (group 3, n = 5).


In group 2, nine animals that underwent MCAo survived for 30 h, and one animal survived for 12 h. We detected MCA variants with 2 to 4 vessels. In all cases, all of the MCAs were occluded. The intensity changes exhibited by IOS and LSF after clipping were closely correlated and indicated a lower blood volume and reduced blood flow in the middle cerebral artery territory. Using IOS, we detected a mean of 2.37 ± (STD) 2.35 SDs/h. Using ECoG, we detected a mean of 0.29 ± (STD) 0.53 SDs/h. Infarctions were diagnosed using histological analysis. TTC staining in group 3 confirmed that the MCA territory was compromised and that the anterior and posterior cerebral arteries were preserved.


We confirm the reliability of performing live monitoring of cerebral infarctions using our MCAo protocol to detect SDs.


Cerebral blood flow Cerebral blood volume Laser speckle flowmetry Gyrencephalic brain Intrinsic optical signal imaging Spreading depolarizations Stroke 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

All authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest (such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers’ bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; and expert testimony, or patent-licensing arrangements), or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge, or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed in accordance with the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee in Karlsruhe, Baden Württemberg, Germany (Protocols No. G-13/15, G-148-15, G-69/16).

Animal Experiments

All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the University of Heidelberg Animal Ethics Policy.

Supplementary material

701_2019_4132_MOESM1_ESM.mp4 (42.4 mb)
Video 1Video 1 Hemodynamic changes observed after MCAo in IOS from example in Fig. 3. The video has a frequency of 10 Hz with a speed of ×50 to better appreciate the SDs through human eye. Pictures are dynamically subtracted to a reference picture 40 s before. First we see the initial are of change at the exact moment where the 3 MCAs are occluded. The area is highlighted with a white line. Later we appreciate the signal produced by 3 SDs. We see markedly the front of waves (42.4 mb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity Hospital HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Center for Clinical Veterinary MedicineLudwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenMunichGermany
  3. 3.Department of NeuropathologyUniversity Hospital HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany

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