Acta Neurochirurgica

, Volume 161, Issue 12, pp 2453–2466 | Cite as

Pathologic remodeling in human neuromas: insights from clinical specimens

  • Mark A. MahanEmail author
  • Hussam Abou-Al-Shaar
  • Michael Karsy
  • Wesley Warner
  • Stewart Yeoh
  • Cheryl A. Palmer
Original Article - Peripheral Nerves
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Peripheral Nerves



Neuroma pathology is commonly described as lacking a clear internal structure, but we observed evidence that there are consistent architectural elements. Using human neuroma samples, we sought to identify molecular features that characterize neuroma pathophysiology.


Thirty specimens—12 neuromas-in-continuity (NICs), 11 stump neuromas, two brachial plexus avulsions, and five controls—were immunohistochemically analyzed with antibodies against various components of normal nerve substructures.


There were no substantial histopathologic differences between stump neuromas and NICs, except that NICs had intact fascicle(s) in the specimen. These intact fascicles showed evidence of injury and fibrosis. On immunohistochemical analysis of the neuromas, laminin demonstrated a consistent double-lumen configuration. The outer lumen stained with GLUT1 antibodies, consistent with perineurium and microfascicle formation. Antibodies to NF200 revealed small clusters of small-diameter axons within the inner lumen, and the anti-S100 antibody showed a relatively regular pattern of non-myelinating Schwann cells. CD68+ cells were only seen in a limited temporal window after injury. T-cells were seen in neuroma specimens, with both a temporal evolution as well as persistence long after injury. Avulsion injury specimens had similar architecture to control nerves. Seven pediatric specimens were not qualitatively different from adult specimens. NICs demonstrated intact but abnormal fascicles that may account for the neurologically impoverished outcomes from untreated NICs.


We propose that there is consistent pathophysiologic remodeling after fascicle disruption. Particular features, such as predominance of small caliber axons and persistence of numerous T-cells long after injury, suggest a potential role in chronic pain associated with neuromas.


Endoneurial tubule Extracellular matrix Laminin Perineurium Peripheral nerve injury Schwann cell 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants or animals

All human and animal studies have been approved by the appropriate ethics committee and have therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.

Informed consent

The study was approved by the institutional review board at the University of Utah with wavier of informed consent from the patients involved in the study.

Supplementary material

701_2019_4052_MOESM1_ESM.docx (7.6 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 7816 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurosurgery, Clinical Neurosciences CenterUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of Neurological SurgeryUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburghUSA
  3. 3.Department of PathologyUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

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