Acta Neurochirurgica

, Volume 161, Issue 10, pp 2059–2064 | Cite as

Technical note: accuracy and precision in stereotactic stem cell transplantation

  • David SatzerEmail author
  • Peter C. Warnke
Technical Note - Functional Neurosurgery - Other
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Functional Neurosurgery – Other



While multiple trials have employed stereotactic stem cell transplantation, injection techniques have received little critical attention. Precise cell delivery is critical for certain applications, particularly when targeting deep nuclei.


Ten patients with a history of ischemic stroke underwent CT-guided stem cell transplantation. Cells were delivered along 3 tracts adjacent to the infarcted area. Intraoperative air deposits and postoperative T2-weighted MRI fluid signals were mapped in relation to calculated targets.


The deepest air deposit was found 4.5 ± 1.0 mm (mean ± 2 SEM) from target. The apex of the T2-hyperintense tract was found 2.8 ± 0.8 mm from target. On average, air pockets were found anterior (1.2 ± 1.1 mm, p = 0.04) and superior (2.4 ± 1.0 mm, p < 0.001) to the target; no directional bias was noted for the apex of the T2-hyperintense tract. Location and distribution of air deposits were variable and were affected by the relationship of cannula trajectory to stroke cavity.


Precise stereotactic cell transplantation is a little-studied technical challenge. Reflux of cell suspension and air, and the structure of the injection tract affect delivery of cell suspensions. Intraoperative CT allows assessment of delivery and potential trajectory correction.


Image guidance Intraoperative CT Stem cell Stereotaxy 



No funding was received for this research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the University of Chicago Institutional Review Board (IRB#15-1409) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA

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