Comparison of radiological and clinical outcomes after surgical reduction with fixation or halo-vest immobilization for treating unstable atlas fractures
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Unstable atlas fractures with concomitant transverse atlantal ligament (TAL) injury may be conservatively managed by halo-vest immobilization (HVI) or surgically treated by various fixation techniques. Many surgeons prefer surgical management due to complications, nonunion, and further dislocations with HVI. There are no comparative studies on surgical and nonsurgical management of unstable atlas fractures. We retrospectively assessed the radiological and clinical outcomes of surgical reduction with fixation vs. non-operative treatments for unstable atlas fractures with TAL rupture.
We analyzed records of 24 patients (15 men, 9 women; mean age, 48.3 years) with at least 1 year of follow-up. They underwent HVI or surgical reduction with fixation for unstable atlas fracture combined with TAL injury. Clinical outcomes, including neck visual analog scale and neck disability index (NDI), and radiological measurements, including degree of fracture displacement, atlantodental interval (ADI), range of motion (ROM), cervical alignment, fusion rate, and time-to-fusion, were assessed.
Of the 24 patients, 13 were treated by surgical reduction with fixation (C1 lateral mass screw-C2 pedicle screw with a cross-link) and 11 by HVI. A significant reduction in lateral displacement of fractured lateral masses was identified in surgical reduction with fixation (3.21 ± 1.21 mm) compared with HVI (0.97 ± 2.69 mm). The mean reduction in ADI was 1.47 ± 1.08 mm with surgical fixation and 0.66 ± 1.02 mm with HVI. The bony rate and time-to-fusion were 100% and 14.91 ± 3.9 weeks with surgical reduction, and 72.7% and 22.31 ± 10.85 weeks with HVI. The postoperative neck pain relief and NDI after surgical fixation were higher than those after HVI.
Compared with HVI, surgical reduction with fixation reduces fractured lateral mass displacements, increases fusion rate, and reduces time-to-fusion while maintaining cervical curvature and improving neck pain and daily activities.
KeywordsAtlas fracture Cervical trauma Halo-vest Jefferson fracture Surgery
The authors thank Hyun Kyung Park, Ph.D., for her contributions to drafting the manuscript and revising it for important intellectual content.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
All human and animal studies were approved by the appropriate ethics committee and were performed in accordance with the ethical standards of the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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