Mathematical skills in children with pilocytic astrocytoma
Pediatric patients with circumscribed cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) tumors generally perform within the normal range on neuropsychological tests after a complete tumor resection. The outcome in academically relevant abilities such as mathematics, which in adults involve some cerebellar functions, is however much less understood. The aim of this study is to retrospectively investigate the neuroplasticity of mathematical skills and associated cognitive functions following cerebellar resection of PA in pediatric patients.
Twenty-two children (mean age = 11.2 + 1.8), including 11 PA patients (females = 6) and 11 healthy controls (females = 6), were administered a battery of mathematical (MaT) and neuropsychological tests. Single-case statistical analyses were carried out (Crawford’s t) as well as between-group comparisons (Wilcoxon test). Spearman correlations between MaT and neuropsychological tests were calculated.
Thirty-six percent of the patients showed difficulties in some mathematical tasks, 50% of them within a broader cognitive deficit. Verbal working memory was associated with MaT performance both in patients and controls while, crucially, visuospatial memory, and visual-motor integration were associated with MaT in patients only. Among patients, MaT correlated negatively with tumor size and positively with the interval surgery test.
The results evince an overall recovery of mathematical abilities despite PA in the majority of patients. This functional reestablishment is supported by visuospatial and visuomotor integration functions that contribute to set up emerging mathematical skills in these patients. Higher levels of compensation are found in more developed tumors as compared to smaller ones.
KeywordsLow-grade pilocytic astrocytoma Surgical resection Cerebellum Neuropsychological sequelae Mathematical performance
We wish to thank Laura Milanese for her valuable assistance on the recruitment of patients. Our gratitude also goes to the parents of all the children for their participation.
This study was funded by the University of Padua (Grant Number: STPD11B88HM). The sponsor had no role in the design or conduct of this research.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 6.Benavides-Varela S, Butterworth B, Burgio F, Arcara G, Lucangeli D, Semenza C (2016) Numerical activities and information learned at home link to the exact numeracy skills in 5–6 years-old children. Front Psychol 7Google Scholar
- 7.Bisiacchi PS, Cendron M, Gugliotta M et al (2005) BVN 5–11. Batteria di valutazione neuropsicologica per l'età evolutiva. Centro studi EricksonGoogle Scholar
- 18.Lis A, Di Nuovo S (1982) Test della grande figura complessa di Rey traduzione italiana. Organizzazioni Speciali, FirenzeGoogle Scholar
- 19.Mammarella IC, Toso C, Pazzaglia F, Cornoldi C (2008) BVS-Corsi. Batteria per la valutazione della memoria visiva e spaziale. Con CD-ROM. Edizioni EricksonGoogle Scholar
- 21.Noone AM, Howlader N, Krapcho M, Miller D, Brest A, Yu M, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Mariotto A, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2015, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, based on November 2017 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2018. https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2015/
- 23.Preda C (2015) VMI Developmental test of visual-motor integration: Il Beery-Buktenica con i test supplementari di percezione visiva e coordinazione motoria: manuale. Organizzazioni Speciali, FirenzeGoogle Scholar
- 30.Wechsler D (2012) Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence—fourth edition. Pearson Assessments, San AntonioGoogle Scholar