Treatment of cavernous malformations in supratentorial eloquent areas: experience after 10 years of patient-tailored surgical protocol
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Eloquent area surgery has become safer with the development of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring and brain mapping techniques. However, the usefulness of intraoperative electric brain stimulation techniques applied to the management and surgical treatment of cavernous malformations in supratentorial eloquent areas is still not proven. With this study, we aim to describe our experience with the use of a tailored functional approach to treat cavernous malformations in supratentorial eloquent areas.
Twenty patients harboring cavernous malformations located in supratentorial eloquent areas were surgically treated. Individualized functional approach, using intraoperative brain mapping and/or neurophysiological monitoring, was utilized in each case. Eleven patients underwent surgery under awake conditions; meanwhile, nine patients underwent asleep surgery.
Total resection was achieved in 19 cases (95%). In one patient, the resection was not possible due to high motor functional parenchyma surrounding the lesion tested by direct cortical stimulation. Ten (50%) patients presented transient neurological worsening. All of them achieved total neurological recovery within the first year of follow-up. Among the patients who presented seizures, 85% achieved seizure-free status during follow-up. No major complications occurred.
Intraoperative electric brain stimulation techniques applied by a trained multidisciplinary team provide a valuable aid for the treatment of certain cavernous malformations. Our results suggest that tailored functional approach could help surgeons in adapting surgical strategies to prevent patients’ permanent neurological damage.
KeywordsBrain mapping Neurophysiological monitoring Cavernous malformations Cerebrovascular Eloquent area surgery
Electric brain stimulation
Diffusion tensor imaging
Functional magnetic resonance imaging
Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring
Magnetic resonance imaging
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest (such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers’ bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; and expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements), or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge, or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
For this type of study, formal consent is not required.
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