Acta Neurochirurgica

, Volume 160, Issue 8, pp 1663–1670 | Cite as

Imaging-based outcome prediction in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage

  • Peter B. SpornsEmail author
  • André Kemmling
  • Jens Minnerup
  • Uta Hanning
  • Walter Heindel
Review Article - Neurosurgery general
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Neurosurgery general


Besides the established spot sign in computed tomography angiography (CTA), recently investigated imaging predictors of hematoma growth in noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) suggest great potential for outcome prediction in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Secondary hematoma growth is an appealing target for therapeutic interventions because in contrast to other determined factors, it is potentially modifiable. Even more initial therapy studies failed to demonstrate clear therapeutic benefits, there is a need for an effective patient selection using imaging markers to identify patients at risk for poor outcome and thereby tailor individual treatments for every patient. Hence, this review gives an overview about the current literature on NCCT imaging markers for neurological outcome prediction and aims to clarify the association with the established spot sign. Moreover, it demonstrates the clinical impact of these parameters and gives a roadmap for future imaging research in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.


Cerebral hemorrhage Intracranial hemorrhages Neuroimaging 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Clinical RadiologyUniversity Hospital of MuensterMuensterGermany
  2. 2.Institute of NeuroradiologyUniversity Hospital of LuebeckLuebeckGermany
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyUniversity Hospital of MuensterMuensterGermany
  4. 4.Department of Diagnostic and Interventional NeuroradiologyUniversity Medical Center Hamburg-EppendorfHamburgGermany

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