pp 1–26 | Cite as

Efficient routing for corona based underwater wireless sensor networks

  • Zahoor Ali Khan
  • Ghazanfar Latif
  • Arshad Sher
  • Imran Usman
  • Mahmood Ashraf
  • Manzoor Ilahi
  • Nadeem Javaid


The imbalance energy consumption and high data traffic at intermediate nodes degrade the network performance. In this paper, we propose: energy grade and balance load distribution corona, EG without corona and DA without corona based schemes to distribute data traffic across the network nodes for efficient energy consumption. The dynamic adjustment of transmission range in first scheme helps in reducing data load. Additionally, the transmission range is purely based on distance, energy and data load of the receiver node for achieving maximum network lifetime. Second scheme divides a data packet into three fractions; small, medium and large for transmitting from various paths to evenly distribute the data load on the network nodes. In third scheme, depth adjustment of void node is performed to resume network operations, whereas, the load distribution and transmission range mechanisms are the same. The extensive simulations are carried out to show the effectiveness of proposed schemes in terms of PDR, energy consumption, and load distribution against the baseline scheme.


Underwater wireless sensor networks Energy grade Load distribution Adaptive transmission power 

Mathematics Subject Classification



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zahoor Ali Khan
    • 1
  • Ghazanfar Latif
    • 2
  • Arshad Sher
    • 2
  • Imran Usman
    • 3
  • Mahmood Ashraf
    • 4
  • Manzoor Ilahi
    • 2
  • Nadeem Javaid
    • 2
  1. 1.Computer Information ScienceHigher Colleges of TechnologyFujairah CampusUnited Arab Emirates
  2. 2.COMSATS University IslamabadIslamabadPakistan
  3. 3.College of Computing and InformaticsSaudi Electronic UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and TechnologyIslamabadPakistan

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