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Two new species of Lepanthes (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Costa Rica and their phylogenetic affinity

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Lepanthes is one of the most species-rich genera of angiosperms in the neotropics. Here, we describe and illustrate two new species of Lepanthes from Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica. Lepanthes crucitasensis,sp. nov. resembles L. confusa, from which it can be distinguished by longer and wider leaves and flowers with entire margin sepals, longer lateral sepals, longer upper lobe and lip with glabrous appendix. Lepanthes adenophorasp.nov. is similar to L. crucitasensis, but it is distinguished by the narrower leaves, always green, shorter inflorescences, pink scarlet petals with a yellow center and with the upper and lower lobe of different lengths, lip not surpassing the column, appendix with glandular trichomes and obovoid-elliptic pollinia. Micromorphologically, the petals of L. adenophora are pubescent or papillose–hispid. Both new species conform a clade closely related to two species from montane forests, suggesting that some lineages can potentially survive or adapt to warmer habitats. Our results demonstrate that alpha-taxonomic studies are pivotal for uncovering phylogenetic relationships in poorly sampled neotropical orchid groups.

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We acknowledge the Ministerio de Ambiente y Energía (MINAE) and Sistema Nacional de Áreas de Conservación (SINAC) of Costa Rica for issuing the scientific permits: 026-2011-SINAC, 073-2012-SINAC, R-SINAC-DE-077, SINAC-SE-GASP-PI-R-019-2015. The Comisión Institucional de Biodiversidad of UCR issued the resolution No. 56 for the access to the genetic and biochemical resources. To Juan Francisco Morales, Daniel Santamaría and Víctor Villalobos for helping with information. This research is part of the research project: 814-B6-140 supported by Vicerrectoría de Investigación, UCR.

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Correspondence to Diego Bogarín.

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Information on Electronic Supplementary Material

Online Resource 1. List of NCBI GenBank accessions and vouchers used in the phylogenetic analyses.

Online Resource 2. Potential conflicting terminals between nuclear‐ and plastid‐derived phylogenies of Lepanthes as inferred by PACo (Procrustes approach to cophylogeny). Potential conflicting terminals between ITS (nuclear) and plastid (matK) derived phylogenies of the Lepanthes species inferred by PACo (Procrustes Approach To Cophylogeny).

Online Resource 3. ITS matrix used in the study.

Online Resource 4. matK matrix used in the study.

Online Resource 5. Concatenated matrix used in the study.

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Bogarín, D., Chinchilla, I.F. & Cedeño-Fonseca, M. Two new species of Lepanthes (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) from Costa Rica and their phylogenetic affinity. Plant Syst Evol 306, 20 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-020-01653-z

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  • Neotropical biodiversity
  • Orchids
  • Phylogenetics
  • Systematics
  • Taxonomy