The extent of glacial survival of woody plants in temperate Asia is still poorly known. A reliable way to clarify this issue in the absence of sufficient paleontological data is a phylogeographic analysis of contemporary populations. A recent study of Juniperus communis genetic diversity in Eurasia suggested that this species with wide ecological tolerance survived the glaciation in many periglacial microrefugia at high latitudes and subsequently spread to new areas during interglacials (Hantemirova et al. in J Biogeogr 44:271–282, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12867). This pattern was termed a “new Eurasian phylogeographical paradigm” as opposed to survival in few major refugia. We have tested the proposed “paradigm” with another hardy species with wide Eurasian area, Prunus padus, to find out if any general phylogeographic patterns may exist for cold-tolerant Eurasian arboreal plant species. We interpret the observed genetic structure [nuclear (ITS) and plastid DNA] of the Eurasian populations of P. padus as plausibly resulted from at least two cycles of glacial survivals in refugia followed by post-glacial colonization events. The species likely originated in East Asia and subsequently spread across all Eurasia. Its continuous range had been fragmented by early-Pleistocene glaciations, when the species survived in the Caucasian and Far Eastern refugia as well as in northern periglacial microrefugia with an active gene flow between them. The known major glacial refugia, such as Iberian Peninsula, the Colchis, the Southern Urals, and the Beringia, played little role as a source of the species post-glacial expansion.
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We thank all the collectors who provided herbarium and silica gel samples: L. Abramova, L. Adamec, J. Calvo, T. Fukuda, E. Chemeris, M. Grigoryan, M. Ivanova, Yu. Kopylov-Guskov, E. Hantemirova, C. Kim, M. Kropf, R. Murtazaliev, A. Mustafina, M. Nosova, E. Pimenova, N. Reshetnikova, C. Romero Redriguez, G. Sramko, N. Tikhomirov, B. Widen, T. Voronkova, D. Zakharchenko. We are grateful to T. Nagamitsu for the information on the distribution of Padus ssiori in Japan and Yu. Bykov for the English correction. Some material was collected at the “Lake Moldino” biological station of the South-West School # 1543, during a field student training course of the Lomonosov Moscow State University and at the territories of Baikalsky, Kandalakshsky, Nizhnesvirsky, and Orenburgsky State nature reserves; we thank their staff for cooperation. We are also grateful to the administration of Verkhnedonskoj district of Rostov Province of the Russian Federation for the help during the student field training in 2018.
This work was partly supported by the Russian Fund for Basic Research (Grant Number 15-29-02486-ofi_m), Tsitsin Main Botanical Garden state assignment (Number 19-119012390082-6), and the Moscow Department of Education.
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Online Resource 1. Geographical origin, ITS ribotypes, and cpDNA haplotypes of the studied populations of the Prunus spp.
Online Resource 2. The maximum likelihood tree for the observed haplotypes.
Online Resource 3. The maximum likelihood tree for the observed ribotypes.
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Volkova, P.A., Burlakov, Y.A. & Schanzer, I.A. Genetic variability of Prunus padus (Rosaceae) elaborates “a new Eurasian phylogeographical paradigm”. Plant Syst Evol 306, 1 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-020-01644-0
- Arboreal vegetation
- Criptic refugia
- Glacial survival