The four-subfamily subdivision of Rosaceae has been recently replaced by a three-subfamily scheme. The re-circumscribed Rosoideae lacks a solid and well-resolved phylogeny on which a classification can be based. In this study, we sampled 56 genera presumably belonging to Rosoideae and 10 genera belonging to other subfamilies or families and used 12 chloroplast regions (matK, rbcL, trnL, trnL–F, ndhF, ycf1, trnC–ycf6, trnS–G, trnS, psbA–trnH, rpoC1 and trnS–ycf9) to reconstruct their phylogeny. Our results confirmed (1) the exclusion of Rhodotypos and Kerria from Rosoideae and their inclusion in the subfamily Amygdaloideae and (2) the exclusion of Chamaebatia, Cercocarpus, Dryas and Purshia (including Cowania) from Rosoideae and their inclusion in Dryadoideae, the sister subfamily of Rosoideae. Within Rosoideae, there are six strongly supported lineages that correspond to six tribes: Ulmarieae, Colurieae, Rubeae, Roseae, Agrimonieae and Potentilleae. We dated the divergence of Rosoideae back to approximately 69.77 million years ago (Mya; 95% HPD = 61.28–78.33 Mya) and that of the tribes within Rosoideae to from 10.42 to 40.02 million years ago (Mya; 95% HPD = 4.73–59.08 Mya). The subfamily is probably of North American and Asian origin and thrives in the northern hemisphere, especially in Asia. After re-circumscriptions of several genera, there are 36 genera recognized in Rosoideae.
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We thank Dr. Guojin Zhang and Dr. Bao Nie for their help in the molecular dating and historical biogeography analyses. This study was partly supported by funds from National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC31872679), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Biodiversity Conservation and the Collaborative Innovation Plan, Institute of Forensic Science, Ministry of Public Security, China (2016XTCX01).
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Online Resource 1. Material list and newly produced sequences in this study.
Online Resource 2. Primers and procedures used to amplify DNA fragments.
Online Resource 3. Taxa and GenBank accessions used in this study.
Online Resource 4. Detailed Fig. 2 of chronogram of Rosaceae based on partition of 12 cpDNA regions derived from BEAST. Numbers at nodes are divergence time of clades.
Online Resource 5. Geographical distributions of extant species in Rosoideae used in this study.
Online Resource 6. Detailed Fig. 1 of maximum likelihood phylogram of Rosoideae based on 12 cpDNA regions of all taxa. Numeric values at nodes indicate 23 maximum likelihood bootstrap values.
Online Resource 7. Detailed Fig. 1 of BI tree of Rosoideae based on 12 cpDNA regions of all taxa. Numbers at the nodes are Bayesian posterior probabilities and PP values ≥0.50 are shown
Online Resource 8. Detailed Fig. 1 of maximum parsimony tree of Rosoideae based on 12 cpDNA regions of all taxa. Numbers at the nodes are bootstrap values, and BP values ≥50 are shown.
Online Resource 9. Detailed Fig. 3 of ancestral area reconstruction of Rosoideae inferred by S-DIVA. Numbers at the nodes are Bayesian posterior probabilities obtained from the BEAST tree.
Online Resource 10. Sequence matrix A containing 12 chloroplast regions of 169 taxa for phylogenetic analyses.
Online Resource 11. Sequence matrix B containing 12 chloroplast regions of 130 taxa for molecular dating and biogeographical analyses.
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Chen, X., Li, J., Cheng, T. et al. Molecular systematics of Rosoideae (Rosaceae). Plant Syst Evol 306, 9 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-020-01629-z
- Divergence times