Microchimica Acta

, 186:769 | Cite as

An ionic-liquid-modified melamine-formaldehyde aerogel for in-tube solid-phase microextraction of estrogens followed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection

  • Juanjuan Feng
  • Xiuqin Wang
  • Sen Han
  • Xiangping Ji
  • Chunying Li
  • Chuannan Luo
  • Min SunEmail author
Original Paper


A combination between an ionic liquid and melamine-formaldehyde aerogel on the carbon fibers was developed for in-tube solid-phase microextraction of estrogens with high efficiency. The sorbent has a high enrichment capability for several estrogens. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the aerogel on the carbon fibers has a porous three-dimensional network structure. Several important parameters such as sampling volume, sampling rate, the concentration of organic solvent in sample, pH value of sample as well as desorption time were optimized towards estrogen targets. Comparing with melamine-formaldehyde aerogel coating, the coating gave higher extraction efficiency. Comparing with melamine-formaldehyde aerogel coating, the new coating displays higher extraction efficiency. An online analytical method of estrogens was established, by the combination between in-tube solid-phase microextraction and high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector. Analytical figures of merit include low limits of detection (<0.20 μg L−1), wide linearity (0.15–20 μg L−1), high enrichment factors (1028–1256), good extraction repeatability (RSDs<2.5%) and satisfactory preparation repeatability (RSDs<10.5%). The method was applied to the determination of trace estrogen targets in plastic bottle, tap water and surface water.

Graphical abstract

Schematic representation of online combination between in-tube solid-phase microextraction and high performance liquid chromatography, based on an ionic liquid (IL)-modified melamine-formaldehyde (MF) aerogel coating on carbon fibers (CFs) in a polyether-etherketone (PEEK) tube.


Aerogel Ionic liquids Online analysis Carbon fibers Three-dimensional network 



This research work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, No. 21777054) and the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. ZR2017MB043 and ZR2019MB058).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

604_2019_3909_MOESM1_ESM.docx (680 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 680 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Interfacial Reaction & Sensing Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringUniversity of JinanJinanPeople’s Republic of China

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