Microchimica Acta

, 187:131 | Cite as

A review on colorimetric methods for determination of organophosphate pesticides using gold and silver nanoparticles

  • I. S. Che Sulaiman
  • B. W. Chieng
  • M. J. Osman
  • K. K. OngEmail author
  • J. I. A. Rashid
  • W. M. Z. Wan Yunus
  • S. A. M. Noor
  • N. A. M. Kasim
  • N. A. Halim
  • A. Mohamad
Review Article


This review (with 99 refs.) summarizes the progress that has been made in colorimetric (i.e. spectrophotometric) determination of organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) using gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs). Following an introduction into the field, a first large section covers the types and functions of organophosphate pesticides. Methods for colorimetric (spectrophotometric) measurements including RGB techniques are discussed next. A further section covers the characteristic features of gold and silver-based NPs. Syntheses and modifications of metal NPs are covered in section 5. This is followed by overviews on enzyme inhibition-based assays, aptamer-based assays and chemical (non-enzymatic) assays, and a discussion of specific features of colorimetric assays. Several Tables are presented that give an overview on the wealth of methods and materials. A concluding section addresses current challenges and discusses potential future trends and opportunities.

Graphical abstract

Schematic representation of organophosphate pesticide determinations based on aggregation of nanoparticles (particular silver or gold nanoparticles). This leads to a color change which can be determined visually and monitored by a red shift in the absorption spectrum.


Aggregation Deaggregation Assay Silver nanoparticles Gold nanoparticles 



The authors would like to highly acknowledge financial support (UPNM/2018/CHEMDEF/ST/2) from Ministry of Education Malaysia. The authors also gratefully acknowledge Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (National Defence University of Malaysia).

Compliance with ethical standards

Competing interests

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. S. Che Sulaiman
    • 1
  • B. W. Chieng
    • 1
  • M. J. Osman
    • 2
  • K. K. Ong
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • J. I. A. Rashid
    • 2
  • W. M. Z. Wan Yunus
    • 3
  • S. A. M. Noor
    • 2
  • N. A. M. Kasim
    • 1
    • 2
  • N. A. Halim
    • 2
  • A. Mohamad
    • 4
  1. 1.Research Centre for Chemical DefenceUniversiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (National Defence University of Malaysia)Kuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and Biology, Centre for Defence Foundation StudiesNational Defence University of MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Centre for TropicalisationNational Defence University of MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  4. 4.Centre of Foundation Studies for Agricultural ScienceUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia

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