Advertisement

Microchimica Acta

, 186:717 | Cite as

Green fluorescent carbon quantum dots functionalized with polyethyleneimine, and their application to aptamer-based determination of thrombin and ATP

  • Ying GuoEmail author
  • Juncai Zhang
  • Weihong Zhang
  • Daodao Hu
Original Paper

Abstract

Brightly fluorescent carbon quantum dots coated with polyethylenimine (PEI-CDs) were prepared using malic acid and PEI as the precursors. The PEI-CDs have a high quantum yield (41%) and green emission (peaking at 502 nm under 430 nm excitation), both of which are not affected by high ionic strength. The PEI-CDs have a positive charge at physiological pH values and can electrostatically bind aptamers with their negative charge. This is shown for aptamers binding thrombin or ATP. Binding of aptamers results in quenching of fluorescence. If thrombin or ATP are introduced, the respective aptamer will bind them, and the complex is then released from the PEI-CDs. Fluorescence increases in proportion to the analyte concentration. Under optimized conditions, thrombin and ATP can be sensitively and selectively detected by fluorometry with lower detection limits of 1.2 and 13 nM, respectively. The assay was successfully applied to the determination of thrombin and of ATP in spiked serum samples.

Graphical abstract

Green fluorescent carbon quantum dots were functionalized with polyethyleneimine. They were applied to aptamer-based determination of thrombin and ATP. The PEI-functionalized carbon quantum dots (PEI-CDs) have bright green fluorescence are were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal treatment of malic acid and PEI. Employing the PEI-CDs, a fluorometric aptamer-based assay was developed for the determination of thrombin and ATP.

Keywords

PEI-CDs Apatmer sensor Green luminescent Fluorescence assay Thrombin detection ATP detection Hydrothermal reaction Malic acid Polyethylenimine Serum analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21773150), the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province (2018JM2045).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

604_2019_3874_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2.5 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 2552 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Baker SN, Baker GA (2010) Luminescent carbon nanodots: emergent nanolights. Angew Chem Int Ed 49:6726–6744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hou J, Yan J, Zhao Q, Li Y, Ding H, Ding L (2013) A novel one-pot route for large-scale preparation of highly photoluminescent carbon quantum dots powders. Nanoscale 5:9558–9561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sahu S, Behera B, Maiti TK, Mohapatra S (2012) Simple one-step synthesis of highly luminescent carbon dots from orange juice: application as excellent bio-imaging agents. Chem Commun 48:8835–8837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liu Y, Duan W, Song W, Liu J, Ren C, Wu J, Liu D, Chen H (2017) Red emission B, N, S-co-doped carbon dots for colorimetric and fluorescent dual mode detection of Fe3+ ions in complex biological fluids and living cells. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:12663–12672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Miao X, Yan X, Qu D, Li D, Tao FF, Sun Z (2017) Red emissive sulfur, nitrogen codoped carbon dots and their application in ion detection and theraonostics. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:18549–18556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Qu S, Zhou D, Li D, Ji W, Jing P, Han D, Liu L, Zeng H, Shen D (2016) Toward efficient orange emissive carbon nanodots through conjugated sp2-domain controlling and surface charges engineering. Adv Mater 28:3516–3521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sun S, Zhang L, Jiang K, Wu A, Lin H (2016) Toward high-efficient red emissive carbon dots: facile preparation, unique properties, and applications as multifunctional theranostic agents. Chem Mater 28:8659–8668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ding H, Ji Y, Wei JS, Gao QY, Zhou ZY, Xiong HM (2017) Facile synthesis of red-emitting carbon dots from pulp-free lemon juice for bioimaging. J Mater Chem B 5:5272–5277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mann KG, Brummel K, Butenas S (2003) What is all that thrombin for? J Thromb Haemost 1:1504–1514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shuman MA, Majerus PW (1976) The measurement of thrombin in clotting blood by radioimmunoassay. J Clin Invest 58:1249–1258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Centi S, Tombelli S, Minunni M, Mascini M (2007) Aptamer-based detection of plasma proteins by an electrochemical assay coupled to magnetic beads. Anal Chem 79:1466–1473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gorman MW, Feigl EO, Buffington CW (2007) Human plasma ATP concentration. Clin Chem 53:318–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kong L, Xu J, Xu Y, Xiang Y, Yuan R, Chai Y (2013) A universal and label-free aptasensor for fluorescent detection of ATP and thrombin based on SYBR Green I dye. Biosens Bioelectron 42:193–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liu Y, Jiang X, Cao W, Sun J, Gao F (2018) Detection of thrombin based on fluorescence energy transfer between semiconducting polymer dots and BHQ-labelled aptamers. Sensors 18:589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kuang L, Cao SP, Zhang L, Li QH, Liu ZC, Liang RP (2016) A novel nanosensor composed of aptamer bio-dots and gold nanoparticles for determination of thrombin with multiple signals. Biosens Bioelectron 85:798–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liang SS, Deng X, Fan YY, Li J, Wang M, Zhang ZQ (2018) A ratiometric fluorometric heparin assay based on the use of CdTe and polyethyleneimine-coated carbon quantum dots. Microchim Acta 185(11):519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yuan YH, Liu ZX, Li RS, Zou HY, Lin M, Liu H, Huang CZ (2016) Synthesis of nitrogen-doping carbon dots with different photoluminescence properties by controlling the surface states. Nanoscale 8:6770–6776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li H, Shao FQ, Huang H, Feng JJ, Wang AJ (2016) Wang, eco-friendly and rapid microwave synthesis of green fluorescent graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots for vitro bioimaging. Sensors Actuators B Chem 226:506–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wang L, Yin Y, Jain A, Zhou HS (2014) Aqueous phase synthesis of highly luminescent, nitrogen-doped carbon dots and their application as bioimaging agents. Langmuir 30:14270–14275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Madrakian T, Maleki TS, Gilak S, Afkhami A (2017) Turn-off fluorescence of amino-functionalized carbon quantum dots as effective fluorescent probes for determination of isotretinoin. Sensors Actuators B Chem 247:428–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang B, Liu F, Wu Y, Chen Y, Weng B, Li CM (2018) Synthesis of catalytically active multielement-doped carbon dots and application for colorimetric detection of glucose. Sensors Actuators B Chem 255:2601–2607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Li LS, Jiao XY, Zhang Y, Cheng C, Huang K, Xu L (2018) Green synthesis of fluorescent carbon dots from Hongcaitai for selective detection of hypochlorite and mercuric ions and cell imaging. Sensors Actuators B Chem 263:426–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Li LS, Jiao XY, Zhang Y, Cheng C, Huang K, Xu L (2018) Highly fluorescent carbon dots synthesized with binary dopants for “turn off” and “turn off-on” sensing and cell imaging. Sensors Actuators B Chem 268:84–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu Y, Xiao N, Gong N, Wang H, Shi X, Gu W, Ye L (2014) One-step microwave-assisted polyol synthesis of green luminescent carbon dots as optical nanoprobes. Carbon 68:258–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kumari A, Kumar A, Sahu SK, Kumar S (2018) Synthesis of green fluorescent carbon quantum dots using waste polyolefins residue for Cu2+ ion sensing and live cell imaging. Sensors Actuators B Chem 254:197–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang Q, Zhang S, Zhong YYang XF, Li Z, Li H (2016) Preparation of yellow-green-emissive carbon dots and their application in constructing a fluorescent turn-on nanoprobe for imaging of selenol in living cells. Anal Chem 89:1734–1741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wu P, Yan XP (2013) Doped quantum dots for chemo/biosensing and bioimaging. Chem Soc Rev 42:5489–5521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liu C, Zhang P, Tian F, Li W, Li F, Liu W (2011) One-step synthesis of surface passivated carbon nanodots by microwave assisted pyrolysis for enhanced multicolor photoluminescence and bioimaging. J Mater Chem 21:13163–13167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bao L, Liu C, Zhang ZL, Pang DW (2015) Photoluminescence-tunable carbon nanodots: surface-state energy-gap tuning. Adv Mater 27:1663–1667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lakowicz JR (2006) Principles of fluorescence spectroscopy, 3rd edn. Springer Singapore, SingaporeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhu Y, Hu XC, Shi S, Gao RR, Huang HL, Zhu YY, Lv XY, Yao TM (2016) Ultrasensitive and universal fluorescent aptasensor for the detection of biomolecules (ATP, adenosine and thrombin) based on DNA/Ag nanoclusters fluorescence light-up system. Biosens Bioelectron 79:205–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yan F, Wang F, Chen Z (2011) Aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor for label-free voltammetric detection of thrombin and adenosine. Sensors Actuators B Chem 160:1380–1385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ji D, Wang H, Ge J, Zhang L, Li J, Bai D, Chen J, Li Z (2017) Label-free and rapid detection of ATP based on structure switching of aptamers. Anal Biochem 526:22–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ying Guo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Juncai Zhang
    • 1
  • Weihong Zhang
    • 1
  • Daodao Hu
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Chemistry & Chemical EngineeringXianyang Normal UniversityXianyangChina
  2. 2.School of Materials Science and EngineeringShaanxi Normal UniversityXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations