Spectrophotometric and visual determination of zoledronic acid by using a bacterial cell-derived nanopaper doped with curcumin
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A nanopaper-based analytical device (NAD) is described for a colorimetric metal-complexing indicator-displacement assay (M-IDA) for zoledronic acid (ZA). Bacterial cellulose nanopaper was doped with curcumin to obtain a chemosensor on which hydrophilic test zones were patterned via laser printing of hydrophobic walls. The color intensity of the test zones decreases in the presence of Fe(III) due to the formation of Fe(III)-curcumin complex. However, upon addition of ZA, Fe(III) ions preferably binds ZA. Subsequently, the color of the zone changes from light yellow to dark yellow. The changes in the absorption (measured at 427 nm) and of the color of the test stripe can be monitored visually, by using a digital camera, or by a spectrophotometer. Under optimal conditions, the analytical signals increase linearly in the 0.01–100 μM ZA concentration range, and the detection limits are 8.8 and 8.0 nM for smartphone and spectrophotometer-based methods, respectively. The method was employed to the determination of ZA in (spiked) urine, serum, saliva, and in pharmaceutical samples.
KeywordsCellulose nanopaper Colorimetric Curcumin Zoledronic acid
The authors are grateful for the financial support of the University of Kurdistan for this study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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