Microchimica Acta

, 186:686 | Cite as

Hollow dummy template imprinted boronate-modified polymers for extraction of norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine prior to quantitation by HPLC

  • Xingyu Hou
  • Wei Huang
  • Yukui Tong
  • Miaomiao TianEmail author
Original Paper


The authors describe boronate-modified hollow dummy template imprinted polymers (B-hDIPs) for selective and sensitive extraction of the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA) from urine samples prior to their detection by HPLC with UV detector. The B-hDIPs were prepared by using (a) nano-TiO2 as the sacrificial support, (b) 3-carboxyphenylboronic acid (CPBA) as the boronate-affinity functional monomer, and (c) catechol which acts as dummy template. The nano-TiO2 can be etched off by using hydrofluoric acid to form the hollow imprint. The main advantages of using such hollow polymers arise from their controllable hole structure which favors template removal and fast mass transfer. The B-hDIPs material was characterized by FT-IR, transmission electron microscope, dynamic light scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectrum, and thermal gravimetric analysis. The effects of imprinting conditions, sample pH, sample flow rate, adsorbent amount, selectivity and competitive capacities were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the limits of detection for the catecholamines are in the range from 15 to 47 ng mL−1. The method was successfully applied to their determination of NE, E, and DA in spiked urine, with recoveries ranging from 63.4 to 106.2%.

Graphical abstract

Schematic presentation of boronate-modified hollow dummy template imprinted polymers as an adsorbent to extraction of the catecholamines (norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine) from urine samples prior to their detection by HPLC-UV.


HPLC Nano-TiO2 Catechol Catecholamines Urine 



The study was supported by the University Nursing Program for Young Scholars with Creative Talents in Heilongjiang Province (UNPYSCT-2018179). The support from Harbin Normal University (XKB201401) is also acknowledged.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2019_3801_MOESM1_ESM.doc (245 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 245 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Photochemical Biomaterials and Energy Storage Materials, Heilongjiang Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringHarbin Normal UniversityHarbinPeople’s Republic of China

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