Amperometric lactate nanobiosensor based on reduced graphene oxide, carbon nanotube and gold nanoparticle nanocomposite
- 15 Downloads
A sensitive amperometric method is reported for the determination of lactate. A platinum electrode was modified with a composite prepared from reduced graphene oxide (rGO), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and gold nanoparticles. The composite was synthesized by the in-situ reduction of gold(III) ions on the GO-CNT hybrid. Triple composite components showed synergistic effects on the enzyme loading, electrocatalytic activity and electron transfer between receptor and electrode surface. The amperometric lactate sensor was obtained by immobilization of lactate oxidase (LOx) on the modified electrode. LOx catalyzes the conversion of lactate into pyruvate and hydrogen peroxide. The generated hydrogen peroxide is simultaneously involved in the oxidation reaction, which is associated with the electron production. These electrons act as amperometric signal generators. At the low potential of 0.2 V, the nanobiosensor shows a relatively wide linear analytical range (i.e., 0.05–100 mM of lactate) with high electrochemical sensitivity (35.3 μA mM−1 cm−2) and limit of detection of 2.3 μM. The sensor is stable, repeatable and reproducible. It is a highly sensitive tool for the detection of lactate in biological samples under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions.
KeywordsAmperometric technique Carbon nanotube Electrochemical biosensor Enzymatic nanosensor Gold nanoparticles Hydrogen peroxide Lactate oxidase Nanocomposite Reduced graphene oxide
This article is a part of a Ph.D. thesis, written by Ms. Shabnam Hashemzadeh, approved at the School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran-Iran (Registration No: M 360) in collaboration with the Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology (RCPN) at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz-Iran. This study was financially supported by and technically conducted at the RCPN (Grant No: 97005).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interests
The authors declare no conflict of interests.
This study was ethically approved by Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (Approval ID: IR.SBMU.MSP.REC.1396.753).
- 2.Katz A, Sahlin K (1987) Effect of decreased oxygen availability on NADH and lactate contents in human skeletal muscle during exercise. Acta Physiol Scand 131(1):119–127. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1716.1987.tb08213.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 3.Lum JJ, Bui T, Gruber M, Gordan JD, DeBerardinis RJ, Covello KL et al (2007) The transcription factor HIF-1α plays a critical role in the growth factor-dependent regulation of both aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis. Genes Dev 21(9):1037–1049. https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.1529107 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 12.Rahman M, Shiddiky MJ, Rahman MA, Shim Y-B (2009) A lactate biosensor based on lactate dehydrogenase/nictotinamide adenine dinucleotide (oxidized form) immobilized on a conducting polymer/multiwall carbon nanotube composite film. Anal Biochem 384(1):159–165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2008.09.030 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 26.Perumal M, Nesakumar N, Velayutham D, Madasamy K, Murugavel K, Kulandaisamy AJ et al (2018) A novel electrochemical sensor based on a nickel-metal organic framework for efficient electrocatalytic oxidation and rapid detection of lactate analysis. New J Chem 42:11839–11846. https://doi.org/10.1039/c8nj02118j CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Hernández-Ibáñez N, García-Cruz L, Montiel V, Foster CW, Banks CE, Iniesta J (2016) Electrochemical lactate biosensor based upon chitosan/carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed graphite electrodes for the determination of lactate in embryonic cell cultures. Biosens Bioelectron 77:1168–1174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2015.11.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar