Microchimica Acta

, 186:679 | Cite as

A monolithic graphitic carbon nitride/polyethersulfone nanocomposite: an application of a mixed matrix membrane as a solid-phase microextraction fiber

  • Elnaz Marzi Khosrowshahi
  • Amir Abbas MatinEmail author
Original Paper


A monolithic solid phase microextraction (M-SPME) fiber based on mixed matrix membrane (MMM) is described for the microextraction of phenol, 2-chlorophenol (2CP), 4-nitrophenol (4NP) and 4-methylphenol (4MP) from refinery wastewaters. The sorbent consists of polyethersulfone (PES) and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), and the phenols were quantified by HPLC with UV detection. This fiber offers good capacity, stability, and ease of preparation and use. The fiber composition, pH value, extraction time, desorption solvent and desorption time were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limits for the phenolic compounds were in the lower μg L−1 range, and responses were linear in the range from 2 to 2500 μg L−1. Fiber-to-fiber and single-fiber repeatabilities were between 5.2 and 10.4%, and between 4.9 and 8.9%, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of phenolic compounds in wastewater samples and gave recoveries between 72 and 108%.

Graphical abstract

Schematic epresentation of a monolithic polyethersulfone/graphitic carbon nitride nanocomposite: a novel application of mixed matrix membrane as a solid-phase microextraction fiber.


Monolithic fiber Graphitic carbon nitride HPLC Phenol 2-chlorophenol 4-nitrophenol 4-methylphenol Polyethersulfone SPME 



The authors thank the Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University for their supporting. Also, The authors acknowledge the petroleum refinery company (Tabriz, Iran) for their assistance in sample collection and the Research Institute of polymer Industry (Tehran, Iran) for kindly cooporation.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2019_3786_MOESM1_ESM.docx (620 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 620 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Basic SciencesAzarbaijan Shahid Madani UniversityTabrizIran

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