Microchimica Acta

, 186:676 | Cite as

Screen printed carbon electrode modified with a copper@porous silicon nanocomposite for voltammetric sensing of clonazepam

  • Farzad Allahnouri
  • Khalil FarhadiEmail author
  • Habibollah Eskandari
  • Rahim Molaei
Original Paper


The work describes an electrochemical sensor for the determination of the tranquilizer clonazepam (CZP) in serum and pharmaceutical preparations. A screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was modified with copper nanoparticles anchored on porous silicon (PSi). The surface of the SPCEs modified with the Cu/PSi nanostructure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Cyclic and differential pulse voltammetric methods were used for the electrochemical studies and electrochemical detection, respectively. Several parameters controlling the performance of the modified SPCE were optimized. The peak current values (at a potential of −0.52 V) were used to construct calibration plots. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration plot is linear in the 0.05–7.6 μM CZP concentration range, and the detection limit is 15 nM. The sensor is reproducible, repeatable, highly selective and sensitive. It was successfully applied to the determination of CPZ in spiked serum and in drugs.

Graphical abstract

Scheme of electrochemical reduction of clonazepam on the designed copper@porous silicon modified screen printed carbon electrode (CuNPs/PSi/SPCE). This electrode was employed for the determination of clonazepam in tablets and human blood plasma using differential pulse voltammetry.


Modified screen printed electrode Copper nanoparticles Porous silicon Determination Voltammetry Electrochemical nanosensor Serum Pharmaceutical preparations 



This work is a part of a thesis by Farzad Allahnouri submitted for a PhD degree and is supported by the Research Council of Urmia University. The authors appreciate Miss. Sepideh Farhadi for her efforts with the English edition of the text.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2019_3784_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.2 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1269 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of ChemistryUrmia UniversityUrmiaIran
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of Mohaghegh ArdabiliArdabilIran

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