Core-shell upconversion nanoparticles of type NaGdF4:Yb,Er@NaGdF4:Nd,Yb and sensitized with a NIR dye are a viable probe for luminescence determination of the fraction of water in organic solvents
- 171 Downloads
Lanthanide-doped core-shell upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) of type NaGdF4:Yb,Er@NaGdF4:Yb,Nd were prepared by the co-precipitation method. The luminescence intensity was further enhanced by adding the sensitizer dye IR-808. If water is added to organic solvents [such as N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide, methanol, acetone, acetonitrile, and ethanol] containing the probe, its luminescence intensity peaking at 545 nm is reduced. The decrease is linearly related to the percentage of water in the respective organic solvent. Water fractions ranging from 0.05% to 10% (volume %) can be sensitively detected, and the detection limit is 0.018% of water in DMF. The detection scheme is mainly attributed to the fact that the transfer of energy from the near-infrared light (NIR) dye to the UCNPs is strongly reduced in the presence of traces of water.
KeywordsUpconversion nanoparticles Dye sensitization Luminescent probe Water fraction
This work was financially supported by natural science foundation of China (21675002), the education commission natural science foundation of Anhui Province (KJ2017ZD25), foundation for innovation team of bioanalytical chemistry and Special and Excellent Research Fund of Anhui Normal University.
Compliance with ethical standards
The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.
- 3.Kang E, Park HR, Yoon J, Yu H-Y, Chang S-K, Kim B, Choi K, Ahn S (2018) A simple method to determine the water content in organic solvents using the 1 H NMR chemical shifts differences between water and solvent. Microchem J 138:395–400. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2018.01.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Wang X-Y, Niu C-G, Hu L-Y, Huang D-W, Wu S-Q, Zhang L, Wen X-J, Zeng G-M (2017) A fluorescent ratiometric sensor based on covalent immobilization of chalcone derivative and porphyrin zinc for detecting water content in organic solvents. Sensors Actuators B Chem 243:1046–1056. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2016.12.084 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Wang X, Yang J, Sun X, Yu H, Yan F, Meguellati K, Cheng Z, Zhang H, Yang YW (2018) Facile surface functionalization of upconversion nanoparticles with phosphoryl pillar arenes for controlled cargo release and cell imaging. Chem Commun (Camb) 54(92):12990–12993. https://doi.org/10.1039/c8cc08168a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Zhang T, Lin H, Cui L, An N, Tong R, Chen Y, Yang C, Li X, Liu J, Qu F (2016) Near infrared light triggered reactive oxygen species responsive upconversion nanoplatform for drug delivery and photodynamic therapy. Eur J Inorg Chem 2016(8):1206–1213. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejic.201501320 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Zhang Y, Yu Z, Li J, Ao Y, Xue J, Zeng Z, Yang X, Tan TT (2017) Ultrasmall-superbright neodymium-upconversion nanoparticles via energy migration manipulation and lattice modification: 808 nm-activated drug release. ACS Nano 11(3):2846–2857. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.6b07958 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 19.Yang G, Yang D, Yang P, Lv R, Li C, Zhong C, He F, Gai S, Lin J (2015) A single 808 nm near-infrared light-mediated multiple imaging and photodynamic therapy based on titania coupled upconversion nanoparticles. Chem Mater 27(23):7957–7968. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b03136 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Ding X, Liu J, Liu D, Li J, Wang F, Li L, Wang Y, Song S, Zhang H (2017) Multifunctional core/satellite polydopamine@Nd3+−sensitized upconversion nanocomposite: a single 808 nm near-infrared light-triggered theranostic platform for in vivo imaging-guided photothermal therapy. Nano Res 10(10):3434–3446. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12274-017-1555-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 23.Chen G, Damasco J, Qiu H, Shao W, Ohulchanskyy TY, Valiev RR, Wu X, Han G, Wang Y, Yang C, Agren H, Prasad PN (2015) Energy-cascaded Upconversion in an organic dye-sensitized core/shell fluoride nanocrystal. Nano Lett 15(11):7400–7407. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b02830 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar