Advertisement

Microchimica Acta

, 186:616 | Cite as

Amperometric enzymatic sensing of glucose using porous carbon nanotube films soaked with glucose oxidase

  • Waraporn Rernglit
  • Somjai Teanphonkrang
  • Wipa SugintaEmail author
  • Albert SchulteEmail author
Original Paper
  • 53 Downloads

Abstract

Glucose oxidase was soaked into a porous carbon nanotube film coating on a platinum disk electrode, then trapped beneath a topcoat of electrodeposition paint. The resulting sensors, operated at a potential of +0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), produced a glucose signal that was linear up to 40 mM, with a 50 μM detection limit. Signal stability over >100 h of continuous operation in a flow cell showed the remarkable functional durability of the biosensor, and confirmed that the electropaint coating effectively prevented loss of the enzyme. This performance is deemed to derive from the minimalistic immobilization layer design and the prevention of protein leakage. The immobilization method has a potentially wide scope, in that it may also be applicable in other types of enzymatic biosensor.

Graphical abstract

Illustration of an enzyme biosensor design that uses glucose oxidase in bare carbon nanotube electrode modifications with electropaint topcoat for amperometric glucose quantification. Immobilization matrix supplementation with extra functional (nano-) materials was unnecessary for high-quality and stable analysis performance.

Keywords

Biosensors Nanomaterials Immobilization Amperometry Electrodeposition paint 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Suranaree University of Technology (SUT) and the Office of the Higher Education Commission under NRU Project of Thailand through a SUT-PhD grant to WS and WR, Research Grant SUT1-102-52-24-01 to AS and budget allocations to AS and WS for maintenance of SUT’s ‘Biochemistry-Electrochemistry Research Unit’. Valued supplementary financial support came through budget allocations from SUT the Vidyasirimedhi Institute of Science and Technology (VISTEC) to Albert Schulte and Wipa Suginta. Sincere appreciation also goes to the company LHV Coatings Limited, Birmingham, England for kindly supplying the cathodic electrodeposition paint for research purposes and Dr. David Apps, quondam Reader, Edinburgh Medical School, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, for his critical manuscript reading and language improvements.

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2019_3740_MOESM1_ESM.doc (294 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 296 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Heller A, Feldman B (2008) Electrochemical glucose sensors and their applications in diabetes management. Chem Rev 108:2482–2505.  https://doi.org/10.1021/cr068069y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wang J (2008) Electrochemical glucose biosensors. Chem Rev 108:814–825.  https://doi.org/10.1021/cr068123a CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rogers KR (2006) Recent advances in biosensor techniques for environmental monitoring. Anal Chim Acta 568:222–231.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2005.12.067 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kanyong P, Krampa FD, Aniweh Y, Awandare GA (2017) Enzyme-based amperometric galactose biosensors: a review. Mikrochim Acta 184:3663–3671.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00604-017-2465-z CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mano N, Edembe L (2013) Bilirubin oxidases in bioelectrochemistry: features and recent findings. Biosens Bioelectron 50:478–485.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2013.07.014 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Azevedo AM, Prazeres DM, Cabral JM, Fonseca LPJ (2005) Ethanol biosensors based on alcohol oxidase. Biosens Bioelectron 21:235–247.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2004.09.030 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhu C, Yang G, Li H, Du D, Lin Y (2015) Electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on nanomaterials and nanostructures. Anal Chem 87:230–249.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ac5039863 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Putzbach W, Ronkainen NJ (2013) Immobilization techniques in the fabrication of nanomaterial-based electrochemical biosensors: a review. Sensors 13:4811–4840.  https://doi.org/10.3390/s130404811 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chen A, Chatterjee S (2013) Nanomaterials based electrochemical sensors for biomedical applications. Chem Soc Rev 42:5425–5438.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C3CS35518G CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gupta S, Murthy CN, Prabha CR (2017) Recent advances in carbon nanotube based electrochemical biosensors. Int J Biol Macromol 108:687–703.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.12.038 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tîlmaciu CM, Morris MC (2015) Carbon nanotube biosensors. Front Chem 3:59.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2015.00059 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yang C, Denno ME, Pyakurel P, Venton BJ (2015) Recent trends in carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for biomolecules: a review. Anal Chim Acta 887:17–37.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2015.05.049 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Barsan MM, Ghica ME, Brett CM (2015) Electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on redox polymer/carbon nanotube modified electrodes: a review. Anal Chim Acta 881:1–23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2015.02.059 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhu Z, Garcia-Gancedo L, Flewitt AJ, Xie H, Moussy F, Milne WIA (2012) A critical review of glucose biosensors based on carbon nanomaterials: carbon nanotubes and graphene. Sensors 12:5996–6022.  https://doi.org/10.3390/s120505996 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jacobs CB, Peairs MJ, Venton BJ (2010) Review: carbon nanotube based electrochemical sensors for biomolecules. Anal Chim Acta 662:105–127.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2010.01.009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Luong JH, Male KB, Hrapovic S (2007) Carbon nanotube-based electrochemical biosensing platforms: fundamentals, applications, and future possibilities. Recent Pat Biotechnol 1:181–191.  https://doi.org/10.2174/187220807780809427 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rivas GA, Rubianes MD, Rodríguez MC, Ferreyra NF, Luque GL, Pedano ML, Miscoria SA, Parrado C (2007) Carbon nanotubes for electrochemical biosensing. Talanta 74:291–307.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2007.10.013 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gruner G (2006) Carbon nanotube transistors for biosensing applications. Anal Bioanal Chem 384:322–335.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-005-3400-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Balasubramanian K, Burghard M (2006) Biosensors based on carbon nanotubes. Anal Bioanal Chem 385:452–468.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-006-0314-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lin Y, Yantasee W, Wang J (2005) Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the development of electrochemical biosensors. Front Biosci 10:492–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang J, Musameh M, Lin Y (2003) Solubilization of carbon nanotubes by Nafion toward the preparation of amperometric biosensors. J Am Chem Soc 125:2408–2409.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ja028951v CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pumera M, Smid B (2007) Redox protein non-covalent functionalization of double-wall carbon nanotubes: electrochemical binder-less glucose biosensor. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 7:3590–3595.  https://doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2007.846 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tsai YC, Li SC, Chen JM (2005) Cast thin film biosensor design based on a Nafion backbone, a multiwalled carbon nanotube conduit, and a glucose oxidase function. Langmuir 21:3653–3658.  https://doi.org/10.1021/la0470535 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Deng S, Jian G, Lei J, Hu Z, Ju H (2009) A glucose biosensor based on direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase immobilized on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes. Biosens Bioelectron 25:373–377.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2009.07.016 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Xue H, Sun W, He B, Shen Z (2003) Single-wall carbon nanotubes as immobilization material for glucose biosensors. Synth Met 135:831–832.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0379-6779(02)00919-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gouveia-Caridade C, Pauliukaite R, Brett CMA (2008) Development of electrochemical oxidase biosensors based on carbon nanotube-modified carbon film electrodes for glucose and ethanol. Electrochim Acta 53:6732–6739.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2008.01.040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Li J, Wang YB, Qiu JD, Sun DC, Xia XH (2005) Biocomposites of covalently linked glucose oxidase on carbon nanotubes for glucose biosensors. Anal Bioanal Chem 383:918–922.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-005-0106-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Krylova I (2001) Painting by electrodeposition on the eve of the 21st century. Prog Org Coat 42:119–131.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0300-9440(01)00146-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Spanu RA, Babudieri S, Latte G, Madeddu G, Galleri G, Nuvoli S, Bagella P, Demartis MI, Fiore V, Manetti R, Serra PA (2016) Enzyme biosensors for biomedical applications: strategies for safeguarding analytical performances in biological fluids. Sensors 16.  https://doi.org/10.3390/s16060780 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chemistry, Institute of ScienceSuranaree University of Technology (SUT)Nakhon RatchasimaThailand
  2. 2.School of Biomolecular Science and Engineering (BSE)Vidyasirimedhi Institute of Science and Technology (VISTEC)RayongThailand

Personalised recommendations