Rapid lateral flow assays based on the quantification of magnetic nanoparticle labels for multiplexed immunodetection of small molecules: application to the determination of drugs of abuse
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A rapid lateral flow immunoassay is presented that uses carboxyl-modified superparamagnetic nanoparticles as labels that can be quantified by highly sensitive multi-channel electronic readers. The approach is generic in that it is likely to be applicable to numerous small molecules. The method permits both single- and multiplex assays at a point-of-need without sample pretreatment. It is user-friendly and offers attractive characteristics demonstrated here for detection of morphine, fentanyl and methamphetamine in urine. The competitive immunoassay uses commercially available reagents that do not require special permissions. After migration of sample, the lateral flow test strips are subjected to an alternating magnetic field at two frequencies. The response from the nanolabels is readout at a combinatorial frequency from the entire volume of a porous immunochromatographic membrane by the magnetic particle quantification technique. Even trace concentrations can be quantified within ≤20 min with the limits of detection (LOD) of 0.20 ng·mL−1, 0.36 ng·mL−1 and 1.30 ng·mL−1 for morphine, fentanyl and methamphetamine, respectively. The second variant presented here features highly sensitive quantification of haptens (LOD for fentanyl - 0.05 ng·mL−1). This is due to high-affinity trapping of magnetic nanolabels in a universal streptavidin-based test strip, which can be also used for detection of virtually any other small molecule. The third variant is of the multiplexed type and intended for rapid and simultaneous detection of the drugs of abuse in human urine with LODs equal to 0.60 ng·mL−1 and 3.0 ng·mL−1 for morphine and methamphetamine, respectively. In addition to the low LODs, the RSDs did not exceed 7%, 9%, and 11% for methamphetamine, morphine and fentanyl, respectively.
KeywordsMagnetic nanolabels Quantification by non-linear magnetization Magnetic immunoassay In vitro diagnostics Point-of-need No sample pretreatment Morphine Fentanyl Methamphetamine
The authors thank Prof. N.S. Osin (State Research Institute of Biological Engineering, Moscow, Russia) and Dr. A.E. Nosyrev (Department of Analytical and Forensic Toxicology of Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University) for the help with organization of the experiments. Different aspects and parts of this multidisciplinary research were partially supported by the grants of Russian Foundation for Basic Research No. 18-33-20252 (preparation, functionalization and characterization of magnetic particles and rapid immunoassay development) and Russian Science Foundation No. 16-12-10543 (development of 3-channel MPQ-readers and multiplex assays).
Compliance with ethical standards
Petr I. Nikitin is a named inventor on the patents on MPQ.
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