Microchimica Acta

, 186:622 | Cite as

Ultrasound-assisted solid-phase extraction of parabens from environmental and biological samples using magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles as an efficient and regenerable nanosorbent

  • Ensieh GhasemiEmail author
  • Mika Sillanpää
Original Paper


Magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3@HAP) are shown to be a viable sorbent for the preconcentration and adsorption of parabens (specifically of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, pentyl-, phenyl- and benzylparaben). The average diameter of the magnetic γ-Fe2O3@HAP nanoadsorbents is 25 nm. The effects of amount of nanoadsorbent, pH value and time of adsorption on the adsorption efficiency were studied by chemometry and optimized using a Box–Behnken design, and the respective response surface equations were derived. The loaded magnetic nanoadsorbent can be removed from the aqueous sample by applying an external magnetic field. Following extraction with acetonitrile, the parabens were quantified by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Under optimum condition, the limit of detection (LOD) and adsorption efficiencies of the method are in the range from 5 to 10 μg L−1 and 95–106%, respectively. The preconcentration factors range from 320 to 350. The results demonstrate that this nanoadsorbent can be applied to the removal of parabens from different water, soil, beverage and urine samples.

Graphical abstract

Schematic representation of ultrasound-assisted solid-phase extraction of parabens from environmental and biological samples by γ-Fe2O3@HAP nanoadsorbent as a new and effective method with high reproducibility and reusability.


γ-Fe2O3@HAP Emerging pollutants Removal Real samples Cosmetics 


Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2019_3720_MOESM1_ESM.docx (235 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 235 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Tehran Medical SciencesIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Green Chemistry, School of Engineering ScienceLappeenranta University of TechnologyMikkeliFinland

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