p-Phenylenediamine-modified graphene oxide as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction of phenylurea herbicides, nitroimidazoles, chlorophenols, phenylurea insecticides and phthalates
- 84 Downloads
Graphene oxide was covalently modified with p-phenylenediamine via a diazonium reaction. The resulting material was employed as a sorbent for the solid-phase extraction of six phenylurea herbicides (metoxuron, monuron, chlortoluron, isoproturon, monolinuron, and buturon) from environmental water and lettuce leafs. Some key factors that influence the extraction efficiency were studied, including sample loading rate, sample pH, and desorption conditions. Following desorption with acetonitrile, the analytes were quantified by HPLC with UV detection. Under optimized conditions, response to phenylurea herbicides is linear in the 2.0–100 ng mL−1 concentration range for water samples, and 5.0–100 ng g−1 for leaf lettuces. The limits of detection are 0.10–0.25 ng mL−1 for water samples, and 1.5–2.5 ng g−1 for leaf lettuces. The sorbent was also applied to the preconcentration of organic compounds including nitroimidazoles, chlorophenols, phenylurea insecticides and phthalates. This shows that this sorbent has a large potential for the enrichment of organic pollutants.
KeywordsHigh performance liquid chromatography Amination modification Diazonium reaction Surface chemistry Leaf lettuces
Financial supports from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31571925, 31671930), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province (B2016204136, B2016204146, B2017204025, C2018204076), Preferential Foundation for the Introduction of Overseas Scholars by Hebei Province (CL201713), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Agricultural University (LG201607, LG201610, ZD201703, LG201712) are gratefully acknowledged.
Compliance with ethical standards
The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
- 1.Farajzadeh MA, Mohebbi A, Feriduni B (2016) Development of continuous dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction performed in home-made device for extraction and preconcentration of aryloxyphenoxy-propionate herbicides from aqueous samples followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Anal Chim Acta 920:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2016.03.041 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 2.Nélieu S, Bonnemoy F, Bonnet JL, Lefeuvre L, Baudiffier D, Heydorff M, Quéméneur A, Azam D, Ducrot PH, Lagadic L, Bohatier J, Einhorn J (2010) Ecotoxicological effects of diuron and chlorotoluron nitrate-induced photodegradation products: monospecific and aquatic mesocosm-integrated studies. Environ Toxicol Chem 29:2644–2652. https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.341 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 9.Su M, Jia L, Wu X, Sun H (2018) Residue investigation of some phenylureas and tebuthiuron herbicides in vegetables by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with integrated selective accelerated solvent extraction-clean up in situ. J Sci Food Agric 98:4845–4853. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9014 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 10.Escuderos-Morenas ML, Santos-Delgado MJ, Rubio-Barroso S, Polo-Dı́ez LM (2003) Direct determination of monolinuron, linuron and chlorbromuron residues in potato samples by gas chromatography with nitrogen–phosphorus detection. J Chromatogr A 1011:143–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(03)01139-7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 11.Rodriguez-Mozaz S, Lopez de Alda MJ, Barceló D (2007) Advantages and limitations of on-line solid phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry technologies versus biosensors for monitoring of emerging contaminants in water. J Chromatogr A 1152:97–115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2007.01.046 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 12.Adelhelm C, Niessner R, Poschl U, Letzel T (2008) Analysis of large oxygenated and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed under simulated diesel engine exhaust conditions (by compound fingerprints with SPE/LC-API-MS). Anal Bioanal Chem 391:2599–2608. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-008-2175-9 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 15.Muñoz J, Gallego M, Valcárcel M (2004) Solid-phase extraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry using a fullerene sorbent for the determination of inorganic mercury(II), methylmercury(I) and ethylmercury(I) in surface waters at sub-ng/ml levels. J Chromatogr A 1055:185–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2004.09.026 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 17.Wang Y, Gao S, Zang X, Li J, Ma J (2012) Graphene-based solid-phase extraction combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry for a sensitive determination of trace amounts of lead in environmental water and vegetable samples. Anal Chim Acta 716:112–118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2011.12.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 18.Wu Q, Wang C, Liu Z, Wu C, Zeng X, Wen J, Wang Z (2009) Dispersive solid-phase extraction followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of some sulfonylurea herbicides in soil by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1216:5504–5510. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2009.05.062 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 21.Reddy KR, Sin BC, Ryu KS, Kim J-C, Chung H, Lee Y (2009) Conducting polymer functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes with noble metal nanoparticles: synthesis, morphological characteristics and electrical properties. Synth Met 159:595–603. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.synthmet.2008.11.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.Sun Y, Wang Q, Chen C, Tan X, Wang X (2012) Interaction between Eu(III) and graphene oxide nanosheets investigated by batch and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and by modeling techniques. Environ Sci Technol 46:6020–6027. https://doi.org/10.1021/es300720f CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 26.Ghanem A, Adly FG, Sokerik Y, Antwi NY, Shenashen MA, El-Safty SA (2017) Trimethyl- β -cyclodextrin-encapsulated monolithic capillary columns: preparation, characterization and chiral nano-LC application. Talanta 169:239–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2016.06.027 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 30.Wang W, Ma R, Wu Q, Wang C, Wang Z (2013) Fabrication of magnetic microsphere-confined graphene for the preconcentration of some phthalate esters from environmental water and soybean milk samples followed by their determination by HPLC. Talanta 109:133–140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2013.02.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 31.De la Peña AM, Mahedero MC, Bautista-Sánchez A (2003) Monitoring of phenylurea and propanil herbicides in river water by solid-phase-extraction high performance liquid chromatography with photoinduced-fluorimetric detection. Talanta 60:279–285. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0039-9140(03)00072-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 33.Gao S, You J, Zheng X, Wang Y, Ren R, Zhang R, Bai Y, Zhang H (2010) Determination of phenylurea and triazine herbicides in milk by microwave assisted ionic liquid microextraction high-performance liquid chromatography. Talanta 82:1371–1377. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2010.07.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar