γ-Aminobutyric acid-modified graphene oxide as a highly selective and low-toxic fluorescent nanoprobe for relay recognition of copper(II) and cysteine
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A sensitive and selective graphene oxide (GO)-based fluorescent nanoprobe has been developed for the relay recognition of Cu2+ and cysteine (Cys) by covalently grafting γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) onto GO. The fluorescence of the probe (with excitation/emission maxima at 360/445 nm) is selectively quenched by Cu2+ via static fluorescence quenching. Fluorescence drops linearly as the concentration of Cu2+ is increased from 50 nM to 1.0 µM, and the detection limit for Cu2+ is calculated as 15 nM. By virtue of the strong interaction between Cys and Cu2+, the GO-GABA/Cu2+ complex can further sensitively recognize Cys in a “switch-on” mode. The linear range for Cys detection is from 50 nM to 1.0 µM, and the detection limit is 38 nM. The probe has low cytotoxicity, and it works well inside living cells, which is verified by the successful application in imaging of LLC-PK1 cells.
KeywordsAmino acids Porcine renal cell Cell imaging Low toxicity Copper ion
This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21705089), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (No. ZR2017MB064, ZR2018MB030), Science and Technology Program of Qingdao (No.18-6-1-83-nsh), the Project of Shandong Province Higher Educational Science and Technology Program (J17KA109) and the Research Foundation for Distinguished Scholars of Qingdao Agricultural University (No. 663-1116010).
Compliance with ethical standards
The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.
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