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Microchimica Acta

, 186:530 | Cite as

Electrochemical sandwich aptasensor for the carcinoembryonic antigen using graphene quantum dots, gold nanoparticles and nitrogen doped graphene modified electrode and exploiting the peroxidase-mimicking activity of a G-quadruplex DNAzyme

  • Zahra Shekari
  • Hamid R. ZareEmail author
  • Ali Falahati
Original Paper

Abstract

A sandwich–type electrochemical aptasensor has been constructed and applied for sensitive and selective detection of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was first modified with nitrogen–doped graphene and then gold nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots electrodeposited on it to obtain an architecture of type GQD/AuNP/NG/GCE. In the next step, the CEA-binding aptamer was immobilized on the modified GCE. Hemin intercalates in the amino-modified hemin aptamer to form a hemin–G–quadruplex (hemin–G4) DNAzyme. The amino modified CEA aptamer II is connected to hemin–G4 by glutaraldehyde (GA) as a linker to produce CEAaptamerII/GA/hemin–G4 (=ApII/GA/DNAzyme). Through a sandwich mode, the ApII/GA/DNAzyme bioconjugates are captured on the modified GCE. Subsequently, the hemin–G4 acts as peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme and rapidly catalyzes the electroreduction of hydrogen peroxide. The quantitative determination of CEA was achieved by differential pulse voltammetry, best at a working potential of around −0.27 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Under optimized conditions, the assay has a linear response in the 10.0 fg mL−1 to 200.0 ng mL−1 CEA concentration range and a lower detection limit of 3.2 fg mL−1.

Graphical abstract

Schematic presentation of a sandwich–type electrochemical aptasensor based on nitrogen doped graphene (NG), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) modified glassy carbon electrode, and the hemin–G4 DNAzyme for femtomolar detection of the carcinoembryonic antigen.

Keywords

Biomarker CEA Electroreduction Hydrogen peroxide Hemin–G–quadruplex · 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2019_3572_MOESM1_ESM.docx (328 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 328 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceYazd UniversityYazdIran
  2. 2.Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceYazd UniversityYazdIran

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