Microchimica Acta

, 186:438 | Cite as

A nanocomposite consisting of reduced graphene oxide and electropolymerized β-cyclodextrin for voltammetric sensing of levofloxacin

  • Mohammad Hossein Ghanbari
  • Faezeh Shahdost-fard
  • Alireza Khoshroo
  • Mehdi Rahimi-NasrabadiEmail author
  • Mohammad Reza Ganjali
  • Marcin Wysokowski
  • Tomasz Rębiś
  • Sonia Żółtowska-Aksamitowska
  • Teofil Jesionowski
  • Parvaneh Rahimi
  • Yvonne Joseph
  • Hermann EhrlichEmail author
Original Paper


A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with a nanocomposite prepared from polymerized β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The modified GCE is shown to enable the voltammetric determination of traces of levofloxacin (LEV) by various electrochemical techniques. Experimental factors affecting the results including the amount of the substrates in preparation of the nanocomposite, accumulation time, the scan rate and pH value of the electrolyte were optimized. The modified GCE, best operated at a working potential of 1.00 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), has two linear response ranges, one for low LEV concentrations (100 pmol L−1 to 100 nmol L−1), and one for higher LEV concentrations (100 nmol L−1 to 100 μmol L−1). The limit of detection and sensitivity are calculated to be 30 pmol L−1 and 467.33 nA μmol L−1 cm−2, respectively. The modified GCE demonstrates a number of advantages such as high sensitivity and selectivity, low LOD, excellent reproducibility, high surface-to-volume ratio, and good electrocatalytic activity towards LEV. The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of LEV in spiked human serum samples.

Graphical abstract


Antibacterial agent Electropolymerization Nanocomposite Electrochemical sensing 



This work was partially supported by the SMWK Project no. 02010311 (Germany); DAAD ref. no. 91528917; DFG Project HE 394/3-2 and PUT project 03/32/DSMK/0810.

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have been complianced all ethical standards..

Supplementary material

604_2019_3530_MOESM1_ESM.docx (641 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 640 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Hossein Ghanbari
    • 1
    • 2
  • Faezeh Shahdost-fard
    • 3
    • 4
  • Alireza Khoshroo
    • 5
  • Mehdi Rahimi-Nasrabadi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mohammad Reza Ganjali
    • 6
    • 7
  • Marcin Wysokowski
    • 8
  • Tomasz Rębiś
    • 9
  • Sonia Żółtowska-Aksamitowska
    • 8
    • 10
  • Teofil Jesionowski
    • 8
  • Parvaneh Rahimi
    • 10
  • Yvonne Joseph
    • 10
  • Hermann Ehrlich
    • 10
    Email author
  1. 1.Chemical Injuries Research Center, Systems Biology and Poisonings InstituteBaqiyatallah University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Faculty of PharmacyBaqiyatallah University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryUniversity of IlamIlamIran
  4. 4.Faculty of MedicineIlam University of Medical SciencesIlamIran
  5. 5.Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of PharmacyKermanshah University of Medical SciencesKermanshahIran
  6. 6.Center of Excellence in ElectrochemistryUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  7. 7.Biosensor Research Centre, Endocrinology & Metabolism Molecular and Cellular Research InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  8. 8.Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Chemical TechnologyPoznan University of TechnologyPoznanPoland
  9. 9.Institute of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemical TechnologyPoznan University of TechnologyPoznanPoland
  10. 10.IESEM, TU BergakademieFreibergGermany

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