Microchimica Acta

, 186:421 | Cite as

A silica nanoparticle based 2-color immunochromatographic assay for simultaneous determination of clenbuterol and ractopamine

  • Qiongqiong Yu
  • Jing Liu
  • Guangying Zhao
  • Wenchao DouEmail author
Original Paper


An immunochromatographic assay (ICA) is presented that can be applied to simultaneous detection of clenbuterol (CLE) and ractopamine (RAC). It is making use of two red and blue silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) that act as labels for encoding the antibodies. This design permits multiplexed analysis in a single test line and does not require an external source for photoexcitation. Anti-CLE was labeled with red SiNPs, and anti-RAC with blue SiNPs. The capture antigens CLE-BSA and RAC-BSA were placed onto the conjugate pad and the test line of the test strip, respectively. Under bare eye examination, no cross-colored lines or nonspecific bioconjugate adsorption were observed, and the visible limit of detections for CLE (red) and RAC (blue) are 3 and 2 ng‧mL−1, respectively. This design allows for multiplexed detection with reduced device dimensions and costs, and with easy integration and manufacturing. Conceivably, the method may be extended to simultaneous determination of numerous other analytes.

Graphic abstract

The principle of qualitative detection strategy of multiplex immunochromatographic assay for clenbuterol (CLE) and ractopamine (RAC) is schematically illustrated. Depending on the type and ratio of organic dyes, the color of colored silica nanoparticle can be tuned from red to purple and even to black (lower right corner).


Immune assay Lateral flow assay β-Agonists Colored silica nanoparticles Multiplex ICA ImageJ Hue intensity On-site Visible Bare eye 



Support by National Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (LY17C200003).

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2019_3529_MOESM1_ESM.docx (800 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 799 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Food Safety Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, School of Food Science and BiotechnologyZhejiang Gongshang UniversityHangzhouChina

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