Voltammetric determination of the antimalarial drug chloroquine using a glassy carbon electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide on WS2 quantum dots
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A voltammetric method is described for the determination of chloroquine (CQ) and validated simultaneously by two techniques and in three different conditions. The WS2 quantum dots (WS2 QDs) were synthesized by a hydrothermal method and then placed on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. The resulting composite material was then deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) where it showed excellent electroactivity. The modified GCE responds to chloroquine at a typical potential maximum of 1.2 V (vs. AgCl/Ag). Techniques including cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were tested. Features of merit include (a) a wide linear response (in the 0.5 μM to 82 μM CQ concentration range), (b) an electrochemical sensitivity of 0.143–0.90 μA·μM−1·cm−2), and a 40–120 nM limit of detection (at S/N = 3). The sensor has excellent selectivity even in the presence of potentially interfering biological compounds. Responses were tested in phosphate buffer, human serum and pharmaceutical formulations, and no cross reactivity or matrix effects were found. In all the three cases, quite satisfactory recoveries were obtained.
KeywordsChloroquine phosphate Anti-malarial drug Reduced graphene oxide WS2 quantum dots Synergistic effect
The first author (MS) is grateful to DST, New Delhi (SR/WOS-A/CS-52/2018) for fellowship. The authors are also thankful to Prof. D. Dash, Institute of Medical Science, BHU,Varanasi, for the help extended towards availing blood serum and CIF, IIT (BHU) Varanasi for providing various characterization facilities.
Compliance with ethical standards
The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests. Monika Srivastava and Preeti Tiwari with Vineet have carried out experiments and are responsible for raw data if required. Human blood serum was collected from blood donors of the institute using our institute hospital (Institute of Medical Sciences, BHU, Varanasi) facility following the methods in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations. All experimental protocols were approved by the Biochemistry lab of the Institute of Medical Sciences, BHU, Varanasi and further, it is sanctioned by institutional committee (Institute Ethical Committee) and consent was obtained from all subjects.
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