Microchimica Acta

, 186:397 | Cite as

A nanocomposite prepared from copper(II) and nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots with peroxidase mimicking properties for chemiluminescent determination of uric acid

  • Bingfang ShiEmail author
  • Yubin Su
  • Yan Duan
  • Shengyu Chen
  • Weiyuan Zuo
Original Paper


Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQD) were employed along with Cu(II) ions under alkaline conditions and room temperature to synthesize nanocomposites of type Cu(II)/Cu2O/N-GQDs. These nanocomposites exhibit excellent stability and dispersity, and also display a peroxidase-like activity that is superior to pure Cu2O nanoparticles and natural peroxidase (POx). A chemiluminescence (CL) method was designed that is based on the use of uricase which oxidizes uric acid under formation of H2O2. The nanocomposites were used as a POx mimic in the luminol-H2O2 CL system. Under optimized conditions, a linear relationship between CL intensity and the uric acid (UA) concentration in the range of 0.16—4.0 μM, and a detection limit of 0.041 μM (at S/N = 3) were obtained. The CL method was applied to the determination of UA in spiked serum and urine, and recoveries ranged from 85.0 to 121.3%.

Graphical abstract

Schematic presentation of synthesis strategy of Cu(II)/Cu2O/N-GQDs and the CL method based Cu(II)/Cu2O/N-GQDs for H2O2-meidated uric acid detection. The method can be used for the determination of uric acid (UA) with the detection limit of 0.041 μM.


Chemiluminescence Nanocomposite Molecule detection Urine 



This work was financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21665001).

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interest.

Supplementary material

604_2019_3491_MOESM1_ESM.doc (1.7 mb)
ESM 1 (DOC 1.67 mb)


  1. 1.
    Kaur H, Halliwell B (1990) Action of biologically-relevant oxidizing species upon uric acid. Identification of uric acid oxidation products. Chem Biol Interact 73(2–3):235–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lakshmi D, Whitcombe MJ, Davis FP, Sharma S, Prasad BB (2011) Electrochemical detection of uric acid in mixed and clinical samples: a review. Electroanalysis 23(2):305–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kumar S, Bhushan P, Bhattacharya S (2016) Development of a paper-based analytical device for colorimetric detection of uric acid using gold nanoparticles- graphene oxide (AuNPs-GO) conjugate. Anal Methods 8(38):6965–6973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kiran R, Scorsone E, Mailley P, Bergonzo P (2012) Quasi-real time quantification of uric acid in urine using boron doped diamond microelectrode with in situ cleaning. Anal Chem 84(23):10207–10213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Liu Y, Li H, Guo B, Zhang Y (2017) Gold nanoclusters as switch-off fluorescent probe for detection of uric acid based on the inner filter effect of hydrogen peroxide-mediated enlargement of gold nanoparticles. Biosens Bioelectron 91:734–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gubala V, Harris LF, Ricco AJ, Tan MX, Williams DE (2011) Point of care diagnostics: status and future. Anal Chem 84(2):487–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Long Q, Fang A, Wen Y, Li H, Zhang Y, Yao S (2016) Rapid and highly-sensitive uric acid sensing based on enzymatic catalysis-induced upconversion inner filter effect. Biosens Bioelectron 86:109–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Özcan A, İlkbaş S (2015) Preparation of poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofibers modified pencil graphite electrode and investigation of over-oxidation conditions for the selective and sensitive determination of uric acid in body fluids. Anal Chim Acta 891:312–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Iranifam M, Sorouraddin MH (2014) Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of naphazoline hydrochloride in pharmaceuticals. Luminescence 29(1):48–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Iranifam M, Khabbaz Kharameh M (2015) Cupric oxide nanoparticles-enhanced chemiluminescence method for measurement of β-lactam antibiotics. Luminescence. 30(5):625–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cai N, Tan L, Li Y, Xia T, Hu T, Su X (2017) Biosensing platform for the detection of uric acid based on graphene quantum dots and G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzyme. Anal Chim Acta 965:96–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lu HF, Li JY, Zhang MM, Wu D, Zhang QL (2017) A highly selective and sensitive colorimetric uric acid biosensor based on Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidation of 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine. Sensors Actuators B Chem 244:77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sheng Y, Yang H, Wang Y, Han L, Zhao Y, Fan A (2017) Silver nanoclusters-catalyzed luminol chemiluminescence for hydrogen peroxide and uric acid detection. Talanta 166:268–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Iranifam M, Hendekhale NR (2017) CuO nanoparticles-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide-sodium hydrogen carbonate chemiluminescence system used for quenchometric determination of atorvastatin, rivastigmine and topiramate. Sensors Actuators B Chem 243:532–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Luo F, Lin Y, Zheng L, Lin X, Chi Y (2015) Encapsulation of hemin in metal-organic frameworks for catalyzing the chemiluminescence reaction of the H2O2-luminol system and detecting glucose in the neutral condition. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7(21):11322–11329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tang D, Liu J, Yan X, Kang L (2016) Graphene oxide derived graphene quantum dots with different photoluminescence properties and peroxidase-like catalytic activity. RSC Adv 6(56):50609–50617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lin L, Song X, Chen Y, Rong M, Zhao T, Wang Y, Ji Y, Chen X (2015) Intrinsic peroxidase-like catalytic activity of nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots and their application in the colorimetric detection of H2O2 and glucose. Anal Chim Acta 869:89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Abdolmohammad-Zadeh H, Rahimpour E (2015) Utilizing of Ag@AgCl@graphene oxide@Fe3O4 nanocomposite as a magnetic plasmonic nanophotocatalyst in light-initiated H2O2 generation and chemiluminescence detection of nitrite. Talanta 144:769–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lee S, Liang CW, Martin LW (2011) Synthesis, control, and characterization of surface properties of Cu2O nanostructures. ACS Nano 5(5):3736–3743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Huang C, Ye W, Liu Q, Qiu X (2014) Dispersed Cu2O octahedrons on h-BN nanosheets for p-nitrophenol reduction. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6(16):14469–14476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang YJ, Wilkinson DP, Zhang J (2011) Noncarbon support materials for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell electrocatalysts. Chem Rev 111(12):7625–7651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Si Y, Samulski ET (2008) Exfoliated graphene separated by platinum nanoparticles. Chem Mater 20(21):6792–6797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shi B, Su Y, Zhao J, Liu R, Zhao Y, Zhao S (2015) Visual discrimination of dihydroxybenzene isomers based on a nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dot-silver nanoparticle hybrid. Nanoscale 7(41):17350–17358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Xu Y, Wang H, Yu Y, Tian L, Zhao W, Zhang B (2011) Cu2O nanocrystals: surfactant-free room-temperature morphology-modulated synthesis and shape-dependent heterogeneous organic catalytic activities. J Phys Chem C 115(31):15288–15296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lim H, Ju Y, Kim J (2016) Tailoring catalytic activity of Pt nanoparticles encapsulated inside dendrimers by tuning nanoparticle sizes with subnanometer accuracy for sensitive chemiluminescence-based analyses. Anal Chem 88(9):4751–4758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhao Z, Wang Y, Li P, Sang S, Zhang W, Hu J, Kun Lian K (2015) A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor based on cu/Cu2O@carbon nanocomposite structures for hydrazine detection. Anal Methods 7(21):9040–9046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    An X, Li K, Tang J (2014) Cu2O/reduced graphene oxide composites for the photocatalytic conversion of CO2. ChemSusChem 7(4):1086–1093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mei L, Feng J, Wu L, Chen J, Shen L, Xie Y, Wang A (2016) A glassy carbon electrode modified with porous Cu2O nanospheres on reduced graphene oxide support for simultaneous sensing of uric acid and dopamine with high selectivity over ascorbic acid. Microchim Acta 183(6):2039–2046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wu S, Fu G, Lv W, Wei J, Chen W, Yi H, Gu M, Bai X, Zhu L, Tan C, Liang Y, Zhu G, He J, Wang X, Zhang K, Xiong J, He W (2018) A single-step hydrothermal route to 3D hierarchicalCu2O/CuO/rGO nanosheets as high-performance anode of lithium-ion batteries. Small 14(5):1702667–1702675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yuan F, Ding L, Li Y, Li X, Fan L, Zhou S, Fang D, Yang S (2015) Multicolor fluorescent graphene quantum dots colorimetrically responsive to all-pH and a wide temperature range. Nanoscale 7(27):11727–11733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kuo C, Chen C, Huang M (2007) Seed-mediated synthesis of monodispersed Cu2O nanocubes with five different size ranges from 40 to 420 nm. Adv Funct Mater 17(18):3773–3780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chen X, Jin Q, Wu L, Tung C, Tang X (2014) Synthesis and unique photoluminescence properties of nitrogen-rich quantum dots and their applications. Angew Chem Int Ed 53(46):12542–12547Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sun H, Li X, Li Y, Fan L, Kraatz HB (2013) A novel colorimetric potassium sensor based on the substitution of lead from G-quadruplex. Analyst 138(3):856–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gao L, Zhuang J, Nie L, Zhang J, Zhang Y, Gu N, Wang T, Feng J, Yang D, Perrett S, Yan X (2007) Intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Nat Nanotechnol 2(9):577–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Regional Ecological Environment Analysis and Pollution Control of West Guangxi, College of Chemistry and Environmental EngineeringBaise UniversityBaiseChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory for the Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Medicinal Resources, School of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical SciencesGuangxi Normal UniversityGuilinChina

Personalised recommendations