Microchimica Acta

, 186:69 | Cite as

A nanocomposite consisting of porous graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets and oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes for simultaneous stripping voltammetric determination of cadmium(II), mercury(II), lead(II) and zinc(II)

  • Manikandan Ramalingam
  • Vinoth Kumar PonnusamyEmail author
  • Sriman Narayanan Sangilimuthu
Original Paper


A 3D nanocomposite consisting of porous graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (p-g-C3N4-NSs) and oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (O-MWCNTs) was prepared by simultaneous chemical oxidation of bulk g-C3N4 and bulk MWCNTs. This one-step oxidation results in the formation of acidic functional groups on the basal surfaces of both g-C3N4 and MWCNTs. Simultaneously, the O-MWCNTs are incorporated in-situ on the porous structure of p-g-C3N4. The acid functionalization and surface morphology of the nanocomposite were examined using attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The nanocomposite was used to modify a screen-printed electrode (SPE) which then was studied by using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and differential pulse voltammetry. The modified SPE exhibits excellent sensitivity and selectivity towards the simultaneous detection of the heavy metal ions Cd(II), Hg(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II), typically at −0.78, +0.35, −0.5 and − 1.16 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The detection limits (at S/N = 3) range between 8 and 60 ng L−1 under conditions of stripping analysis. The method was applied to the simultaneous detection of these ions in various (spiked) food samples. The results demonstrated the good accuracy and reproducibility of the method.

Graphical abstract

Schematic of a highly sensitive and selective electrochemical method for the simultaneous detection of four heavy metals. It is based on the use of a screen printed electrode (SPE) modified with 3D porous g-C3N4 and O-MWCNTs, and of anodic stripping voltammetry.


Porous g-C3N4 Oxidized-MWCNTs 3D Nanocomposite Screen-printed electrode Stripping analysis Simultaneous detection Heavy metals Food analysis 



The authors thank the Ministry of Science and Technology-Taiwan (MOST105-2113-M-037-019-MY2), Kaohsiung Medical University (KMU)-Taiwan and Research Center for Environmental Medicine-KMU, Taiwan for research grant supports.

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2018_3178_MOESM1_ESM.doc (854 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 853 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicinal and Applied ChemistryKaohsiung Medical UniversityKaohsiung City-807Taiwan
  2. 2.Research Center for Environmental MedicineKaohsiung Medical UniversityKaohsiung City-807Taiwan
  3. 3.Department of Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemical SciencesUniversity of MadrasChennai CityIndia

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