A carbon paste electrode modified with a nickel titanate nanoceramic for simultaneous voltammetric determination of ortho- and para-hydroxybenzoic acids
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An electrochemical sensor is described for the simultaneous determination of ortho-hydroxybenzoic acid (OHB) and para-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB). The sensor consists of a carbon paste electrode modified with nickel titanate nanoceramics (NiTiO3/CPE). The NiTiO3 nanoceramics and the nanostructured modified CPE were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Differential pulse voltammetry indicates that the response to OHB (best measured at 0.90 V vs. Ag/AgCl) and PHB (measured at 0.80 V vs. Ag/AgCl) is significantly improved at the modified CPE compared to a bare CPE. The limits of detection (at S/N = 3) are 0.38 and 0.10 μM for OHB and PHB, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of the two isomers in peeling skin lotion and during the Kolbe-Schmitt reaction.
KeywordsNanostructured sensor Interference-free determination Monohydroxy benzoic acid isomers Salicylic acid Microscopic and electrochemical techniques
The authors are grateful to University of Kashan for supporting this work by grant no. 211037-28.
Compliance with ethical standards
The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.
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