Microchimica Acta

, 185:570 | Cite as

Gold/WS2 nanocomposites fabricated by in-situ ultrasonication and assembling for photoelectrochemical immunosensing of carcinoembryonic antigen

  • Ye Hu
  • Yajiao Huang
  • Zhengguo Wang
  • Yanying Wang
  • Xiaoxue Ye
  • WingLeung Wong
  • Chunya LiEmail author
  • Dong SunEmail author
Original Paper


Tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets were obtained by exfoliating WS2 bulk crystals in N-methylpyrrolidone by ultrasonication. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were synthesized by in-situ ultrasonication of sodium citrate and HAuCl4 while fabricating the WS2 nanosheets. In this way, the GNPs were self-assembled on WS2 nanosheets to form a GNPs/WS2 nanocomposite through interaction between sulfur and gold atoms. The photoelectrochemical response of WS2 nanosheets is significantly enhanced after integration of the GNPs. The GNPs/WS2 nanocomposite was coated onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to construct a sensing interface which then was modified with an antibody against the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) to obtain a photoelectrochemical immunosensor for CEA. Under optimized conditions, the decline in relative photocurrent is linearly related to the logarithm of the CEA concentration in the range from 0.001 to 40 ng mL−1. The detection limit is 0.5 pg mL−1 (at S/N = 3). The assay is sensitive, selective, stable and reproducible. It was applied to the determination of CEA in clinical serum samples.

Graphical abstract

Schematic presentation of the fabrication of Au/WS2 nanocomposites by in-situ ultrasonication and the procedure for the CEA photoelectrochemical immunosensor preparation, and the photocurrent response towards the carcinoembryonic antigen.


Photoelectrochemistry Immunosensor CEA Transition metal dichalcogenides Nanosheets Gold nanoparticles 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial supports from The National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21874157, 21675175, 21445003 and 21275166), Major Projects of Technical Innovation of Hubei Province (No. 2017ACA172) and The Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province (No. 2018CFB617 and 2015CFA092).

Compliance with ethical standards

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

604_2018_3100_MOESM1_ESM.docx (971 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 970 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ye Hu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yajiao Huang
    • 1
  • Zhengguo Wang
    • 3
  • Yanying Wang
    • 2
  • Xiaoxue Ye
    • 2
  • WingLeung Wong
    • 4
  • Chunya Li
    • 2
    Email author
  • Dong Sun
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Pharmaceutical SciencesWenzhou Medical UniversityWenzhouChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission, College of Chemistry and Materials ScienceSouth-Central University for NationalitiesWuhanChina
  3. 3.Institute of Food Science and Engineering TechnologyHezhou UniversityHezhouChina
  4. 4.School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, International Healthcare Innovation Institute (Jiangmen)Wuyi UniversityJiangmenChina

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