An amino-functionalized mesoporous silica (KIT-6) as a sorbent for dispersive and ultrasonication-assisted micro solid phase extraction of hippuric acid and methylhippuric acid, two biomarkers for toluene and xylene exposure
- 97 Downloads
The authors described a new application of amino-functionalized KIT-6 for dispersive ultrasonication-assisted micro solid phase extraction of hippuric acid (HA) and methyl hippuric acid (MHA) from human urine and water samples. In the first step, an amino-functionalized mesoporous silica of type KIT-6 was synthesized. It was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis, thermogravimetry and X-ray diffraction. Following sorption and desorption with 1.0 mL methanol/NH4OH (1%; v/v), HA and MHA were quantified by HPLC with UV detection. Various important parameters were optimized by Box-Behnken design. Under optimized conditions, The limit of detections (LOD) were calculated by a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, which were 0.5 μg L−1 and 0.2 μg L-1 for HA and MHA, respectively, and the calibration plot is linear in the 1–1000 μg L−1 concentration range. Only small matrix effects were found. The method was successfully implemented for the sensitive determination of HA and MHA in (spiked) human urine samples.
KeywordsUrine sample High performance liquid chromatography Box-Behnken design Simultaneous detection Metabolites Occupational health Surface functionalization
We gratefully acknowledge Iranian National Science Foundation (INSF).
Compliance with ethical standards
The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.
- 1.(ACGIH) (2014) A.C.o.G.I.H., Peracetic Acid Documentation of the TLVs and BEIsGoogle Scholar
- 2.Moro AM, Brucker N, Charão M, Bulcão R, Freitas F, Baierle M, Nascimento S, Valentini J, Cassini C, Salvador M, Linden R, Thiesen F, Buffon A, Moresco R, Garcia SC (2012) Evaluation of genotoxicity and oxidative damage in painters exposed to low levels of toluene. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 746:42–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Frederick CP, NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMNM) (2003) NIOSH 8301: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Cincinnati, OHGoogle Scholar
- 20.Gregg SJ, Sing KSW (1982) Adsorption, surface area and porosity, second edn. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 24.Ghanbari Kakavandi M, Behbahani M, Omidi F, Hesam G (2017) Application of ultrasonic assisted-dispersive solid phase extraction based on ion-imprinted polymer nanoparticles for Preconcentration and trace determination of Lead ions in food and water samples. Food Anal Methods 10:2454–2466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) 2003. Manual of analytical methods (NMAM), 4th ed. Hippuric and methyl Hippuric acids in urine: method 8301. (3):1-5. Retrived from: http://www.cdc.gov/docs/2003-154/pdfs/8301.pdf
- 27.Ohashi Y, Mamiya T, Mitani K, Wang B, Takigawa T, Kira S, Kataoka H (2006) Simultaneous determination of urinary hippuric acid, o-, m-and p-methylhippuric acids, mandelic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid for biomonitoring of volatile organic compounds by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 566:167–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar