Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering

, Volume 52, Issue 11, pp 4747–4761 | Cite as

Comparative Study of Tunnel Blast-Induced Vibration on Tunnel Surfaces and Inside Surrounding Rock

  • Jianhua Yang
  • Jiyong Cai
  • Chi YaoEmail author
  • Peng Li
  • Qinghui Jiang
  • Chuangbing Zhou
Original Paper


In tunnel blast applications, vibration monitors are typically placed on tunnel surfaces to measure the responses of rock to explosion loads for statutory compliance. Few publications in the open literature have focused on the differences between the blasting vibration on tunnel surfaces and inside the surrounding rock. During blasting excavation of the experimental tunnels in the China Jinping Underground Laboratory, velocity sensors were arranged both on the tunnel walls and inside the surrounding rock to monitor far-field vibrations. In this paper, the vibration characteristics on the tunnel surfaces and inside the surrounding rock are presented based on the recorded field data. Corresponding empirical formulae for peak particle velocity (PPV) attenuation and dominant frequency variation are derived from these data. A three-dimensional dynamic finite-element model is used to verify the site survey results. The field and numerical studies show that compared with the inside vibration, the tunnel surface vibration has a higher, more readily attenuated PPV and a lower frequency with a slower rate of decline in the dominant frequency. The mechanisms that cause the differences between the surface and inside vibration are discussed in detail. The tunnel surface vibration in the far field is dominated by surface waves, which occupy more than 75% of the total vibrational energy. For this reason, the results presented in this paper do not apply to vibration in the near field, where body waves are expected to be dominant.


Blasting vibration Free surface Peak particle velocity Frequency Numerical modelling 

List of Symbols




Damping matrix


Blasthole diameter




Young’s modulus


Energy in a frequency sub-band


Total energy




Dominant frequency


Site constant


Stiffness matrix


Mass matrix


Borehole pressure history


Blasting pressure history on excavation surfaces


von Neumann borehole pressure


Blasthole spacing


Longitudinal velocity history


Resultant velocity history


Transverse velocity history


Vertical velocity history


Charge weight per delay


Attenuation index


Pressure decay parameter


Poisson’s ratio


Rock density



This work is supported by Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (51509126 and U1765207), Jiangxi Provincial Natural Science Foundation (20181BAB206047), and CRSRI Open Research Program (CKWV2018467/KY). The authors wish to express their thanks to all the supports.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jianhua Yang
    • 1
  • Jiyong Cai
    • 1
  • Chi Yao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Peng Li
    • 2
  • Qinghui Jiang
    • 1
  • Chuangbing Zhou
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Civil Engineering and ArchitectureNanchang UniversityNanchangChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Geotechnical Mechanics and Engineering of MWRYangtze River Scientific Research InstituteWuhanChina

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