Advertisement

Full-Scale Linear Cutting Tests to Propose Some Empirical Formulas for TBM Disc Cutter Performance Prediction

  • Yucong Pan
  • Quansheng LiuEmail author
  • Xingxin Peng
  • Qi Liu
  • Jianping Liu
  • Xing Huang
  • Xianze Cui
  • Tao Cai
Original Paper
  • 121 Downloads

Abstract

Determination of the TBM disc cutter performance at the optimum rock cutting condition is very important, but the existing theoretical, laboratory, numerical or empirical methods still have some shortcomings. Full-scale rock cutting test is regarded as the most accurate and reliable method in the laboratory, but it still requires large rock blocks and specific testing equipment, which make the use of this method very limited and costly. Thus, by collecting, analyzing and formulizing the results of many full-scale linear cutting tests, this study partly overcomes the shortcoming of the full-scale rock cutting test and proposes some new empirical formulas to predict TBM disc cutter performance in a much easier and less costly way. First, this study reveals the general rules to characterize the change of rock cutting results with the increase of rock uniaxial compressive strength and cutter penetration depth by conducting full-scale linear cutting tests on five different rock types. Then, by analyzing a large amount of full-scale linear cutting test results, this study correlates the TBM disc cutter performance at the optimum rock cutting condition with rock uniaxial compressive strength and a widely used semi-theoretical prediction model. The new proposed empirical formulas in this study only use rock properties, cutter geometries and cutting geometries to design the machine specifications and select the TBM operation parameters, which is a much easier and less costly method.

Keywords

Tunnel boring machine (TBM) Linear cutting machine (LCM) Disc cutter Rock cutting Performance prediction CSM Model 

List of Symbols

β

Acting angle of the disc cutter resultant force referred to the normal direction (rad)

θ

Angle of the studied point on the rock-cutter contact arc referred to the normal direction (rad)

φ

Contact angle between the rock surface and disc cutter (rad)

ν

Poisson’s ratio of the rock

ρ

Natural density of the rock (g/cm3)

σc

Uniaxial compressive strength of the rock (MPa)

σt

Brazilian tensile strength of the rock (MPa)

ψ

Contact pressure distribution constant in the semi-theoretical CSM model, typically − 0.2 to 0.2

BI

Rock boreability index obtained in the full-scale linear cutting tests (kN/mm)

BINor

Normalized rock boreability index obtained in the full-scale linear cutting tests

C

Constant in the semi-theoretical CSM model, usually taken as 2.12

CC

Disc cutter cutting coefficient obtained in the full-scale linear cutting tests (%)

CCNor

Normalized disc cutter cutting coefficient obtained in the full-scale linear cutting tests

D

Disc cutter diameter (mm)

E

Static elasticity modulus of the rock (GPa)

FN

Mean disc cutter normal force obtained in the full-scale linear cutting tests (kN)

FNp

Peak disc cutter normal force obtained in the full-scale linear cutting tests (kN)

FNCSM

Disc cutter normal force predicted by the semi-theoretical CSM model (kN)

FNNor

Normalized disc cutter normal force obtained in the full-scale linear cutting tests

FNopt

Normal force at the optimum condition obtained in the full-scale linear cutting tests (kN)

(FNopt)CSM

Normal force at the optimum condition predicted by the semi-theoretical CSM model (kN)

FPI

Field penetration index (kN/cutter/mm/rev)

FR

Disc cutter rolling force obtained in the full-scale linear cutting tests (kN)

FRp

Peak disc cutter rolling force obtained in the full-scale linear cutting tests (kN)

FRCSM

Disc cutter rolling force predicted by the semi-theoretical CSM model (kN)

FRNor

Normalized disc cutter rolling force obtained in the full-scale linear cutting tests

FRopt

Rolling force at the optimum condition obtained in the full-scale linear cutting tests (kN)

(FRopt)CSM

Rolling force at the optimum condition predicted by the semi-theoretical CSM model (kN)

FTCSM

Disc cutter resultant force predicted by the semi-theoretical CSM model (kN)

KN

Normal force modification factor considering rock uniaxial compressive strength

KR

Rolling force modification factor considering rock uniaxial compressive strength

KS

Specific energy modification factor considering rock uniaxial compressive strength

NRF

Normalized resultant force of the disc cutter obtained in the full-scale linear cutting tests

p

Cutter penetration depth (mm)

P0

Base contact pressure immediately underneath the disc cutter (MPa)

Pθ

Contact pressure distribution function within the rock-cutter contact area (MPa)

R

Disc cutter radius (mm)

s

Disc cutter spacing (mm)

s/p

Cutter spacing to penetration depth ratio obtained in the full-scale linear cutting tests

(s/p)opt

Optimum cutter spacing to penetration depth ratio obtained in the full-scale linear cutting tests

SE

Specific energy obtained in the full-scale linear cutting tests (MJ/m3)

SEopt

Optimum specific energy obtained in the full-scale linear cutting tests (MJ/m3)

(SEopt)CSM

Optimum specific energy predicted by the semi-theoretical CSM model (MJ/m3)

SRMBI

Specific rock mass boreability index (kN/cutter/mm/rev)

T

Disc cutter tip width (mm)

V

Rock cutting volume per cutting distance (mm3/mm)

Abbreviations

CCS

Constant cross section

CSM

Colorado School of Mines

CSU-LCM

The linear cutting machine in Central South University, China

ISRM

International Society for Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering

LCM

Linear cutting machine

TBM

Tunnel boring machine

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 41807250, 41602326 and 41702254, National Key Basic Research Program of China under Grant No. 2015CB058102, and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation Program under Grant No. 2017M622515. The authors are grateful for their continuous support, and also very much grateful to the authors’ colleagues for their valuable help in organizing this article. Prof. Yimin Xia’s postgraduates at Central South University are sincerely acknowledged for helping the authors prepare the rock samples and conduct the full-scale linear cutting tests. The anonymous reviewers are also deeply acknowledged for reviewing this article and giving their valuable comments.

References

  1. Abu Bakar MZ, Gertsch L, Rostami J (2014) Evaluation of fragments from disc cutting of dry and saturated sandstone. Rock Mech Rock Eng 47(5):1891–1903.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-013-0482-8 Google Scholar
  2. Atici U, Ersoy A (2009) Correlation of specific energy of cutting saws and drilling bits with rock brittleness and destruction energy. J Mater Process Technol 209:2602–2612.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2008.06.004 Google Scholar
  3. Balci C (2009) Correlation of rock cutting tests with field performance of a TBM in a highly fractured rock formation: a case study in Kozyatagi-Kadikoy metro tunnel, Turkey. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 24(4):423–435.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2008.12.001 Google Scholar
  4. Balci C, Tumac D (2012) Investigation into the effects of different rocks on rock cuttability by a V–type disc cutter. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 30(4):183–193.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2012.02.018 Google Scholar
  5. Balci C, Demircin MA, Copur H, Tuncdemir H (2004) Estimation of optimum specific energy based on rock properties for assessment of roadheader performance. J S Afr Inst Min Metall 104(11):633–642Google Scholar
  6. Bilgin N, Demircin MA, Copur H, Balci C, Tuncdemir H, Akcin N (2006) Dominant rock properties affecting the performance of conical picks and the comparison of some experimental and theoretical results. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 43:139–156.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2005.04.009 Google Scholar
  7. Bilgin N, Copur H, Balci C, Tumac D, Akgul M, Yuksel A (2008) The selection of a TBM using full scale laboratory tests and comparison of measured and predicted performance values in Istanbul Kozyatagi–Kadikoy metro tunnels. In: World Tunnel Congress 2008–Underground Facilities for Better Environment and Safety, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  8. Bruland A (1998) Hard rock tunnel boring. PhD Thesis. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  9. Cardu M, Iabichino G, Oreste P, Rispoli A (2017) Experimental and analytical studies of the parameters influencing the action of TBM disc tools in tunnelling. Acta Geotech 12(2):293–304.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11440-016-0453-9 Google Scholar
  10. Chen LH, Labuz JF (2006) Indentation of rock by wedge–shaped tools. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 43(7):1023–1033.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2006.03.005 Google Scholar
  11. Cho JW, Jeon S, Yu SH, Chang SH (2010) Optimum spacing of TBM disc cutters: a numerical simulation using the three–dimensional dynamic fracturing method. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 25(3):230–244.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2009.11.007 Google Scholar
  12. Cho JW, Jeon S, Jeong HY, Chang SH (2013) Evaluation of cutting efficiency during TBM disc cutter excavation within a Korean granitic rock using linear–cutting–machine testing and photogrammetric measurement. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 35(4):37–54.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2012.08.006 Google Scholar
  13. Copur H, Aydin H, Bilgin N, Balci C, Tumac D, Dayanc C (2014) Predicting performance of EPB TBMs by using a stochastic model implemented into a deterministic model. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 42(3):1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2014.01.006 Google Scholar
  14. Delisio A, Zhao J, Einstein HH (2013) Analysis and prediction of TBM performance in blocky rock conditions at the Lötschberg Base Tunnel. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 33:131–142.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2012.06.015 Google Scholar
  15. Dogruoz C, Rostami J, Keles S (2018) Study of correlation between specific energy of cutting and physical properties of rock and prediction of excavation rate for lignite mines in Çayırhan area, Turkey. B Eng Geol Environ 77:533–539.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-017-1124-2 Google Scholar
  16. Entacher M, Schuller E (2018) Angular dependence of rock cutting forces due to foliation. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 71:215–222.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2017.08.009 Google Scholar
  17. Entacher M, Lorenz S, Galler R (2014) Tunnel boring machine performance prediction with scaled rock cutting tests. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 70(9):450–459.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2014.04.021 Google Scholar
  18. Ersoy A, Atici U (2007) Correlation of P and S–waves with cutting specific energy and dominant properties of volcanic and carbonate rocks. Rock Mech Rock Eng 40(5):491–504.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-006-0111-x Google Scholar
  19. Farrokh E, Rostami J, Laughton C (2012) Study of various models for estimation of penetration rate of hard rock TBMs. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 30(4):110–123.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2012.02.012 Google Scholar
  20. Geng Q, Wei ZY, Meng H (2016a) An experimental research on the rock cutting process of the gage cutters for rock tunnel boring machine (TBM). Tunn Undergr Space Technol 52:182–191.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2015.12.008 Google Scholar
  21. Geng Q, Wei ZY, Meng H, Macias FJ, Bruland A (2016b) Free–face–assisted rock breaking method based on the multi–stage tunnel boring machine (TBM) cutterhead. Rock Mech Rock Eng 49(11):4459–4472.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-016-1053-6 Google Scholar
  22. Gertsch R (1993) Tunnel boring machine disk cutter vibrations. MS thesis, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, USAGoogle Scholar
  23. Gertsch R (2000) Rock toughness and disc cutting. PhD thesis, University of Missouri, Rola, Missouri, USAGoogle Scholar
  24. Gertsch R, Ozdemir L (1992) Performance prediction of mechanical excavators from linear cutter tests on Yucca Mountain welded tuffs: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Off Sci Tech Inform Tech Rep.  https://doi.org/10.2172/138470 Google Scholar
  25. Gertsch R, Gertsch L, Rostami J (2007) Disc cutting tests in Colorado Red Granite: implications for TBM performance prediction. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 44(2):238–246.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2006.07.007 Google Scholar
  26. Gong QM (2005) Development of a rock mass characteristics model for TBM penetration rate prediction. PhD Thesis, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  27. Gong QM, Zhao J, Jiao YY (2005) Numerical modeling of the effects of joint orientation on rock fragmentation by TBM cutters. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 20:183–191.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2004.08.006 Google Scholar
  28. Gong QM, Jiao YY, Zhao J (2006) Numerical modelling of the effects of joint spacing on rock fragmentation by TBM cutters. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 21:46–55.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2005.06.004 Google Scholar
  29. Gong QM, He GW, Zhao XB, Ma HS, Li XZ (2015) Influence of different cutter spacings on rock fragmentation efficiency of Beishan granite by TBM. Chin J Geotech Eng 37(1):54–60.  https://doi.org/10.11779/CJGE201501005 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  30. Gong QM, Du XL, Li Z, Wang QX (2016) Development of a mechanical rock breakage experimental platform. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 57:129–136.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2016.02.019 Google Scholar
  31. Labra C, Rojek J, Oñate E (2016) Discrete/finite element modelling of rock cutting with a TBM disc cutter. Rock Mech Rock Eng 50(3):621–638.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-016-1133-7 Google Scholar
  32. Lin LK, Mao QS, Xia YM, Zhu ZM, Yang D, Guo B, Lan H (2017) Experimental study of specific matching characteristics of tunnel boring machine cutter ring properties and rock. Wear 378–379:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2017.01.072 Google Scholar
  33. Liu HY, Kou SQ, Lindqvist P, Tang CA (2002) Numerical simulation of the rock fragmentation process induced by indenters. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 39:491–505.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1365-1609(02)00043-6 Google Scholar
  34. Liu QS, Pan YC, Liu JP, Kong XX, Shi K (2016) Comparison and discussion on fragmentation behavior of soft rock in multi–indentation tests by a single TBM disc cutter. Tunn Under Space Technol 57:151–161.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2016.02.021 Google Scholar
  35. Ma HS, Gong QM, Wang J, Yin LJ, Zhao XB (2016a) Study on the influence of confining stress on TBM performance in granite rock by linear cutting test. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 57:145–150.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2016.02.020 Google Scholar
  36. Ma HS, Gong QM, Wang J, Zhao XB, Yin LJ, Miao CT, He GW (2016b) Linear cutting tests on effect of confining stress on rock fragmentation by TBM cutter. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 35(2):346–355.  https://doi.org/10.13722/j.cnki.jrme.2014.0926 Google Scholar
  37. Macias FJ (2016) Hard rock tunnel boring: Performance predictions and cutter life assessments. PhD Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  38. Moon T, Oh J (2012) A study of optimal rock–cutting conditions for hard rock TBM using the discrete element method. Rock Mech Rock Eng 45(5):837–849.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-011-0180-3 Google Scholar
  39. Ozdemir L, Wang FD (1979) Mechanical tunnel boring prediction and machine design. Nasa Sti/recon Technical Report N80Google Scholar
  40. Pan YC, Liu QS, Liu JP, Peng XX, Kong XX (2018a) Full–scale linear cutting tests in Chongqing Sandstone to study the influence of confining stress on rock cutting forces by TBM disc cutter. Rock Mech Rock Eng 51(6):1697–1713.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-018-1412-6 Google Scholar
  41. Pan YC, Liu QS, Peng XX, Kong XX, Liu JP, Zhang XB (2018b) Full–scale rotary cutting test to study the influence of disc cutter installment radius on rock cutting forces. Rock Mech Rock Eng 51(7):223.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-018-1460-y Google Scholar
  42. Pan YC, Liu QS, Liu JP, Huang X, Liu Q, Peng XX (2018c) Comparison between experimental and semi–theoretical disc cutter cutting forces: Implications for frame stiffness of the linear cutting machine. Arab J Geosci.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-018-3593-4 Google Scholar
  43. Pan YC, Liu QS, Liu JP, Liu Q, Kong XX (2018d) Full–scale linear cutting tests in Chongqing Sandstone to study the influence of confining stress on rock cutting efficiency by TBM disc cutter. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 80:197–210.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2018.06.013 Google Scholar
  44. Pan YC, Liu QS, Kong XX, Liu JP, Peng XX, Liu Q (2018e) Full–scale linear cutting test in Chongqing Sandstone and the comparison with field TBM excavation performance. Acta Geotechnica.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11440-018-0702-1 Google Scholar
  45. Pan YC, Liu QS, Liu JP, Kong XX, Peng XX, Liu Q (2018f) Investigation on disc cutter behaviors in cutting rocks of different strengths and reverse estimation of rock strengths from experimental cutting forces. Euro J Environ Civil Eng.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19648189.2018.1512904 Google Scholar
  46. Rostami J (1991) Design optimization, performance predictions, and economic analysis of TBM application in the proposed Yucca mountain nuclear waste repository. MS thesis 4139, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, USAGoogle Scholar
  47. Rostami J (2013) Study of pressure distribution within the crushed zone in the contact area between rock and disc cutters. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 57(1):172–186.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2012.07.031 Google Scholar
  48. Rostami J, Ozdemir L (1993) A new model for performance prediction of hard rock TBMs. In: Proceedings of rapid excavation and tunneling conference, USA, pp 794–809Google Scholar
  49. Roxborough FF, Phillips HR (1975) Rock excavation by disc cutter. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 12(75):361–366.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(75)90547-1 Google Scholar
  50. Sanio HP (1985) Prediction of the performance of disc cutters in anisotropic rock. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 22(3):153–161.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(85)93229-2 Google Scholar
  51. Snowdon RA, Ryley MD, Temporal J (1982) A study of disc cutting in selected British rocks. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 19(3):107–121.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(82)91151-2 Google Scholar
  52. Teale R (1965) The concept of specific energy in rock drilling. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 2(1):57–73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(65)90022-7 Google Scholar
  53. Thyagarajan MV (2018) The comparison of cutting forces on disc cutters in constant vs variable penetration modes. MS thesis, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, USAGoogle Scholar
  54. Tiryaki B (2009) Estimating rock cuttability using regression trees and artifcial neural networks. Rock Mech Rock Eng 42(6):939–946.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-008-0012-2 Google Scholar
  55. Tiryaki B, Dikmen AC (2006) Effects of rock properties on specific cutting energy in linear cutting of sandstones by picks. Rock Mech Rock Eng 39(2):89–120.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-005-0062-7 Google Scholar
  56. Tumac D, Balci C (2015) Investigations into the cutting characteristics of CCS type disc cutters and the comparison between experimental, theoretical and empirical force estimations. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 45:84–98.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2014.09.009 Google Scholar
  57. Tumac D, Bilgin N, Feridunoglu C, Ergin H (2007) Estimation of rock cuttability from shore hardness and compressive strength properties. Rock Mech Rock Eng 40(5):477–490.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-006-0108-5 Google Scholar
  58. Ulusay R (2015) The complete ISRM suggested methods for rock characterization, testing and monitoring: 2007–2014. Springer International Publishing, ChamGoogle Scholar
  59. Wang X, Wang QF, Liang YP, Su O, Yang L (2018) Dominant cutting parameters affecting the specific energy of selected sandstones when using conical picks and the development of empirical prediction models. Rock Mech Rock Eng.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-018-1522-1 Google Scholar
  60. Xia YM, Guo B, Tan Q, Zhang XH, Lan H, Ji ZY (2018) Comparison between experimental and semi–theoretical cutting forces of CCS disc cutters. Rock Mech Rock Eng 51:1583–1597.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-018-1400-x Google Scholar
  61. Yin LJ, Miao CT, He GW, Dai FC, Gong QM (2016) Study on the influence of joint spacing on rock fragmentation under TBM cutter by linear cutting test. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 57:137–144.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2016.02.018 Google Scholar
  62. Yurdakul M, Gopalakrishnan K, Akdas H (2014) Prediction of specific cutting energy in natural stone cutting processes using the neurofuzzy methodology. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 67:127–135.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2014.01.015 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Safety for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering of Hubei Province, School of Civil EngineeringWuhan UniversityWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.China Railway 11th Bureau Group4th Engineering Co., LtdWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Changjiang Institute of Survey, Planning, Design and ResearchWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower EngineeringSichuan Agricultural UniversityYa’anPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.State Key Laboratory of Geomechanics and Geotechnical EngineeringInstitute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of SciencesWuhanPeople’s Republic of China
  6. 6.College of Hydraulic and Environmental EngineeringChina Three Gorges UniversityYichangPeople’s Republic of China
  7. 7.China Construction Third Engineering Bureau Co., LtdWuhanPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations