Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering

, Volume 52, Issue 11, pp 4855–4862 | Cite as

An Experiment Study on a Novel Self-Swelling Anchorage Bolt

  • Shuai Xu
  • Pengyuan Hou
  • Ming CaiEmail author
  • Yuanhui Li
Technical Note


Rockbolting, which is widely used in geotechnical and mining engineering, is a reinforcement technique to stabilize rock masses through high-strength members such as cablebolts, rebars and steel pipes (Graham 1996). Rock reinforcement improves the load-bearing capacity of rock masses by increasing the strength of the rock masses (Hoek and Brown 1980).

Rockbolts can be divided into three types based on the anchorage mechanism—mechanical bolts, bonded bolts and friction bolts (Hoek et al. 2000). Mechanical bolts are normally used as temporary supports because of its immediate support ability and low cost. The disadvantages of mechanical bolts include strict requirement for borehole drilling and high dependence of the mechanical grip on borehole diameter (Cai and Champaigne 2012).

The strengthening effect of bonded bolts depends on the adhesion of bonding materials grouted into the space between the rockbolt and the borehole wall. Bonded rockbolts include epoxy resin...


Self-swelling anchorage bolt (SSAB) Rock support Laboratory pull-out test Field pullout test Time effect 



This study was funded by the State Key Research Development Program of China (2018YFC0604400), the National Science Foundation of China (51874068), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (N160107001), and the 111 Project (B17009). The authors wish to thank the staff of Fushun Hongtoushan Copper Mine for providing access to their mine for the field test of the SSAB. The authors also acknowledge laboratory assistant, Jun Tian, for his contributions to the laboratory test. The authors would like to thank the reviewers for their comments and suggestions that greatly improved the quality of the paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Cai M, Champaigne D (2012) Influence of bolt-grout bonding on MCB conebolt performance. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 49:165–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cai M, Kaiser P (2018) Rockburst support reference book—volume I: rockburst phenomenon and support characteristics. Laurentian University, Sudbury, p 284Google Scholar
  3. Gholinejad M, Arshadnejad S (2012) An experimental approach to determine the hole-pressure under expansion load. J South Afr Inst Min Metall 112:631–635Google Scholar
  4. Goto K, Kojima K, Watabe K (1988) The mechanism of expansive pressure and blow-out of static demolition agent. Conf Demolit Reuse Concrete Masonry 1:116–125Google Scholar
  5. Graham MWJ (1996) Developments and trends in miners/bolters. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 1:31A–32AGoogle Scholar
  6. Hoek E, Brown ET (1980) Underground excavations in rock. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  7. Hoek E, Kaiser PK, Bawden WF (2000) Support of underground excavations in hard rock. CRC, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kaiser PK, Cai M (2012) Design of rock support system under rockburst condition. J Rock Mech Geotech Eng 4:215–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kaiser P, KTannant DD, McCreath DR (1996) Canadian rockburst support handbook. Geomechanics Research Centre, Laurentian University, SudburyGoogle Scholar
  10. Li CC (2011) Rock support for underground excavations subjected to dynamic loads and failure. Adv Rock Dyn Appl Taylor and Francis Group, London, pp 483–506Google Scholar
  11. Li CC, Doucet C (2012) Performance of D-bolts under dynamic loading. Rock Mech Rock Eng 45:193–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Pells P, Bertuzzi R (1999) Permanent rockbolts-the problems are in the detail. In: Proceedings, tenth Australian tunneling conference, Melbourne, Australia, pp 21–24Google Scholar
  13. Scott J (1974) Friction rock stabilizers and their application to ground control problems. Min Eng 26(8):51Google Scholar
  14. Stacey T (2011) Support of excavations subjected to dynamic (rockburst) loading. In: Proceedings of the 12th international congress of the international society of rock mechanics, pp 137–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Wijk G, Skogberg B (1982) The Swellex rock bolting system. In: 14th Canadian rock mechanics symposium, pp 106–115Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education on Safe Mining of Deep Metal MinesNortheastern UniversityShenyangPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Bharti School of EngineeringLaurentian UniversitySudburyCanada
  3. 3.MIRARCOLaurentian UniversitySudburyCanada

Personalised recommendations