Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering

, Volume 52, Issue 11, pp 4619–4635 | Cite as

Role of Tectonic Coal in Coal and Gas Outburst Behavior During Coal Mining

  • Qingyi Tu
  • Yuanping ChengEmail author
  • Ting Ren
  • Zhenyang Wang
  • Jia Lin
  • Yang Lei
Original Paper


Coal and gas outbursts are small-scale geological disasters controlled by tectonic movement, and tectonic coal is widespread in outburst zones. In this study, we compare tectonic and intact coal specimens to examine the basic properties of tectonic coal. We estimate the different energies and limits of the crushing work ratio of coal from five typical outburst cases using on-site outburst data, and discuss the relationship between outbursts and tectonic coal. The results show that tectonic coal is a product of tectonic movement and its original primary structure is destroyed during the tectonic process. Compared with intact coal, tectonic coal shows low strength properties and a crushing work ratio of 22.11 J/m2. The specific surface area and total pore volume of the minipores, mesopores, and macropores of the coal strongly increase under conditions of intense tectonism, which indicates that tectonic coal has a very high capacity for rapid initial gas desorption. An adequate supply of gas is required to transport outburst coal, such that the existence of coal particles smaller than the critical diameter is important. Our calculations indicate that the crushing work ratio of coal from the five outburst case ranges from 22.19 to 78.67 J/m2. Only the crushing work ratio of tectonic coal satisfies the requirement for these cases. Therefore, the properties of the tectonic coal and crushing work ratio for the five cases indicate that the widespread occurrence of tectonic coal plays a crucial role in outbursts.


Coal and gas outburst Tectonic coal Tectonic movement Outburst energy Crushing work ratio 

List of Symbols


Protodyakonov coefficient


Gas adsorption constant


Gas adsorption constant


Moisture content


Ash content


Volatile content


Total crushing work


Mass of the hammer


Drop height


Gravitational acceleration


Impact times


Crushing work ratio

\(\Delta S\)

Newly added surface area


Crushing work of each test


Applied force




Surface area of the coal particles


Coal mass


Mass proportion


Coal particle size


Density of coal


Surface area of initial coal particles


Average particle size of the initial coal particles


Stress energy


Gas energy


Additional energy causing by mining activities


Crushing work


Transport work


Remaining energy


Stress energy per unit volume


Triaxial stresses


Elastic modulus


Poisson’s ratio


Gas pressure


Gas volume


Adiabatic coefficient


Free gas volume


Coal porosity


Coal volume


Diffusion coefficient


Diffusion time


Gas desorption volume at time \(t\)

\(Q_{\infty }\)

Final gas desorption volume


Atmospheric pressure


Adsorbed gas volume


Gas desorption volume in the \(i\) particle-size range


Transport work of the \(i\) segment


Outburst coal mass of the \(i\) segment


Distance from the outburst point


Friction coefficient


Coal seam angle


Initial gas desorption rate of coal particles


Correction factor


The ratio of the average horizontal principal stress to the vertical stress


Cover depth


Maximum horizontal principal stress


Minimum horizontal principal stress


Vertical stress

\(\bar{\gamma }\)

Average density of the overlying strata



The authors are grateful for the supported by Outstanding Innovation Scholarship for Doctoral Candidate of “Double First Rate” Construction Disciplines of CUMT. Yueqiang Xing is gratefully acknowledged for his assistance with the language revision. Comments by all of the anonymous reviewers are highly appreciated.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qingyi Tu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Yuanping Cheng
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ting Ren
    • 3
  • Zhenyang Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jia Lin
    • 3
  • Yang Lei
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Coal Methane and Fire Control, Ministry of EducationChina University of Mining and TechnologyXuzhouChina
  2. 2.Faculty of Safety EngineeringChina University of Mining and TechnologyXuzhouChina
  3. 3.School of Civil, Mining and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia

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