Advertisement

Very Slow Creep Tests on Salt Samples

  • Pierre BérestEmail author
  • Hakim Gharbi
  • Benoit Brouard
  • Dieter Brückner
  • Kerry DeVries
  • Grégoire Hévin
  • Gerd Hofer
  • Christopher Spiers
  • Janos Urai
Original Paper
  • 86 Downloads

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to assess the creep law of natural salt in a small deviatoric stress range. In this range, creep is suspected to be much faster than what is predicted by most constitutive laws used in the cavern and mining industries. Five 2-year, multistage creep tests were performed with creep-testing devices set in a gallery of the Altaussee mine in Austria to take advantage of the very stable temperature and humidity conditions in this salt mine. Each stage was 8-month long. Dead loads were applied, and vertical displacements were measured through gages that had a resolution of 12.5 nm. Loading steps were 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 MPa, which are much smaller than the loads that are usually applied during creep tests (5–20 MPa). Five salt samples were used: two samples were cored from the Avery Island salt mine in Louisiana, United States; two samples were cored from the Gorleben salt mine in Germany; and one sample was cored from a deep borehole at Hauterives in Drôme, France. During these tests, transient creep is relatively long (6–10 months). Measured steady-state strain rates (\(\dot {\varepsilon }\) = 10−13–10−12 s−1) are much faster (by 7–8 orders of magnitude) than those extrapolated from relatively high-stress tests (σ = 5–20 MPa). When compared to n = 5 within the high-stress domain for Gorleben and Avery Island salts, a power-law stress exponent within the low-stress domain appears to be close to n = 1. These results suggest that the pressure solution may be the dominant deformation mechanism in the steady-state regime reached by the tested samples and will have important consequences for the computation of caverns or mines behavior. This project was funded by the Solution-Mining Research Institute.

Keywords

Salt creep Slow creep rate Pressure solution Dislocation creep 

List of Symbols

A, A0, A1, A2

Constants of the constitutive law

c

Constant of the transient constitutive law

E

Elastic modulus

d

Cylindrical sample diameter

D

Grain diameter

h

Cylindrical sample height

K0

Constant of the transient constitutive law

ksalt

Salt thermal diffusivity

Ksalt

Salt thermal conductivity

m

Constant of the transient constitutive law

n

Exponent of the power law

Patm

Atmospheric pressure

q

Constant of the hygrometry-sensitive constitutive law

t

Time

u1, u2, u3, u4

Relative displacements of the upper and lower platens

w

Constant of the hygrometry-sensitive constitutive law

Q1, Q2

Activation energy

R

Universal gas constant

T

Absolute temperature

αth

Thermal expansion coefficient of salt

α

Rotation angle of the upper plate

β

Rotation angle of the upper plate

ε

Strain

εel

Elastic strain

εvp

Viscoplastic strain

\(\dot {\varepsilon }\)

Strain rate

\({\dot {\varepsilon }_{\text{s}}}\)

Steady-state strain rate

\({\dot {\varepsilon }_{\text{t}}}\)

Transient strain rate

\(\varepsilon _{{\text{t}}}^{*}\)

Cumulated transient strain

η

Viscosity

θ

Characteristic transient time

σ

Deviatoric stress

σv

Stress level

Φ

Hygrometry

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Mr. Steve Bauer (Sandia National Laboratories), the Solution-Mining Research Institute (SMRI) project sponsor, for his comments and Mr. Caspar Sinn (University of Utrecht) who measured grain size in the salt samples. The authors are most grateful to Stefan Simentschitsch, engineer at the Altaussee mine, whose help has been instrumental. Most of the results described in this paper were obtained in the frame of the cooperative research program RR-2017-1 that was funded by the SMRI. The research report (Bérest et al. 2017) is available through the SMRI website (http://www.solutionmining.org).

References

  1. Bérest P (2013) The mechanical behavior of salt and salt caverns. Key note lecture. In: Marek Kwasniewśki M, Lydżba D (eds) Proceedings Eurock 2013. CRC Press, London, pp 17–30Google Scholar
  2. Bérest P, Blum PA, Charpentier JP, Gharbi H, Valès F (2005) Very slow creep tests on rock samples. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 42:569–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bérest P, Brouard B, Karimi-Jafari M (2009) The effect of small deviatoric stresses on cavern creep behavior. In: Zuoliang S (ed) Proceedings 9th international symposium on salt. Gold Wall Press, Beijing, China, pp 574–589Google Scholar
  4. Bérest P, Béraud JF, Gharbi H, Brouard B, DeVries K (2014) A very slow creep test on an Avery Island salt sample. In: Proceedings 48th US rock mechanics/geomechanics symposium, Minneapolis, MinnesotaGoogle Scholar
  5. Bérest P, Brouard B, Gharbi H (2015) Rheological and geometrical reverse creep in salt caverns. In: Roberts LA, Mellegard KD, Hansen F (eds) Mechanical behavior of salt VIII: proceedings of the conference on mechanical behavior of salt, SALTMECH VIII. CRC Press/Balkema, Leiden, The Netherlands, pp 199–208. https://www.crcpress.com/Mechanical-Behaviour-of-Salt-VIII/Roberts-Mellegard-Hansen/p/book/9781138028401
  6. Bérest P, Brouard B, Bruckner D, DeVries K, Gharbi H, Hévin G, Gerd G, Hofer G, Spiers C, Stimmisher S, Urai JL (2017) Very slow creep tests as a basis for cavern stability analysis. SMRI research report RR2017-1, SMRI, Clarks Summit, PAGoogle Scholar
  7. Blum W, Fleischman C (1988) On the deformation-mechanism map of rock salt. In Hardy R Jr, Langer M (eds) Proceedings of the second conference on the mechanical behavior of salt. H. Trans TechPub. Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany, pp 7–23Google Scholar
  8. Bornemann O, Behlau J, Keller S, Mingerzahn G, Schramm M (2008) Standortbeschreibung gorleben teil III: ergebnisse der erkundung des salinars, abschlussbericht zum AP G 412110000. Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, HanoverGoogle Scholar
  9. Breunesse JN, van Eijs RMHE, de Meer S, Kroon JC (2003) Observation and prediction of the relation between salt creep and land subsidence in solution-mining. The Barradeel case. In: Proceedings SMRI fall meeting, Chester, UK, pp 38–57Google Scholar
  10. Brouard B, Bérest P, de Greef V, Béraud JF, Lheur C, Hertz E (2013) Creep closure rate of a shallow salt cavern at Gellenoncourt, France. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 62:42–50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2012.12.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Campos de Orellana AJ (1996) Non-associated pressure solution creep in salt rock mines. In: Aubertin M, Hardy RH Jr (eds) Proceedings of the fourth conference on the mechanical behavior of salt. Trans Tech Pub, Clausthal-Zellerfel, Germany, pp 429–444Google Scholar
  12. Carter NL, Hansen FD (1980) Mechanical behavior of Avery Island halite: a preliminary analysis. Report Number ONWI100, prepared by RESPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD, for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation. Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus. https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:12577452
  13. Carter NL, Horseman ST, Russell JE, Handin J (1993) Rheology of rocksalt. J Str Geo 15:1257–1271.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8141(93)90168-A CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chan KS, Munson DE, Fossum AF, Bodner SR (1996) A constitutive model for representing coupled creep, fracture and healing in rock salt. In: Aubertin M, Hardy, RH Jr (eds) Proceedings of the fourth conference on the mechanical behavior of salt. Trans Tech Pub, Clausthal-Zellerfel, Germany, pp 221–247Google Scholar
  15. Cornet JS, Dabrowski M, Schmid DW (2017) Long-term cavity closure in non-linear rocks. Geo J Int 210:1231–1243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cristescu ND, Hunsche U (1998) Time effects in rock mechanics. Series: materials, modelling and computation. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  17. DeVries KL (1988) Viscoplastic laws for Avery Island salt. RSI0333, prepared by RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City. SD, for Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, BostonGoogle Scholar
  18. Djizanne Djakeun H (2014) Stabilité mécanique d’une cavité saline soumise à des variations rapides de pression. Dissertation. Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, FranceGoogle Scholar
  19. Hammer J, Pusch M, Häger A, Ostertag-Henning C, Thiemeyer N, Zulauf G (2015) Hydrocarbons in rock salt of the Gorleben salt dome—amount, distribution, origin, and influence on geomechanical properties. In: Roberts LA, Mellegard KD, Hansen F (eds) Mechanical behavior of salt VIII: proceedings of the conference on mechanical behavior of salt, SALTMECH VIII. CRC Press/Balkema, Leiden, The Netherlands, pp 69–75. https://www.crcpress.com/Mechanical-Behaviour-of-Salt-VIII/Roberts-Mellegard-Hansen/p/book/9781138028401
  20. Hampel A (2015) Description of damage reduction and healing with the CDM constitutive model. In: Roberts LA, Mellegard, KD, Hansen F (eds) Mechanical behavior of salt VIII: proceedings of the conference on mechanical behavior of salt, SALTMECH VIII. CRC Press/Balkema, Leiden, The Netherlands, pp 301–310. https://www.crcpress.com/Mechanical-Behaviour-of-Salt-VIII/Roberts-Mellegard-Hansen/p/book/9781138028401
  21. Herchen K, Popp T, Düsterloh U, Lux KH, Salzer K, Lüdeling C, Günther RM, Rölke C, Minkley W, Hampel A, Yildirim S, Staudtmeister K, Gährken A, Stahlmann J, Reedlunn B, Hansen FD (2018) WEIMOS: laboratory investigations of damage reduction and creep at small deviatoric stresses in rock salt. In: Proceedings of the conference on mechanical behavior of salt, SaltMech IX, Hannover, Germany, September 12–18, pp 175–192Google Scholar
  22. Horseman ST (1988) Moisture content—a major uncertainty in storage cavity closure prediction. In: Hardy HR Jr, Langer M (eds) Proceedings of the second conference on the mechanical behavior of salt. Trans Tech Publications, Clausthal, Germany, pp 53–68Google Scholar
  23. Hunsche U (1988) Measurement of creep in rock salt at small strain rates. In: Hardy HR Jr, Langer M (eds) Proceedings of the second conference on the mechanical behavior of salt. Trans Tech Publications, Clausthal, Germany, pp 187–196Google Scholar
  24. Hunsche U, Schultze O (1996) Effect of humidity and confining pressure on creep of rock salt. In: Hardy HR Jr, Langer M (eds) Proceedings of the third conference on the mechanical behavior of salt. Trans Tech Publications, Clausthal, Germany, pp 237–248Google Scholar
  25. Hunsche U, Schultze O (2002) Humidity induced creep and its relation to the dilatancy boundary. In: Cristescu ND, Hardy JR Jr, Simionescu RO (eds) Proceedings of the fifth conference on the mechanical behavior of salt. A. A. Balkema, The Netherlands, pp 73–87Google Scholar
  26. Koelemeijer PJ, Peach CJ, Spiers CJ (2012) Surface diffusivity of cleaved NaCl crystals as a function of humidity: impedance spectroscopy measurements and implications for crack healing in rock salt. J Geo Res Solid Earth 117:1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JB008627 Google Scholar
  27. Langer M (1984) The rheological behavior of rock salt. In: Hardy HR Jr, Langer M (eds) Proceedings of the second conference on the mechanical behavior of salt. Trans Tech Publications, Clausthal, Germany, pp 201–240Google Scholar
  28. Lux KH, Düsterloh U (2015) From birth to long-term life—main aspects regarding THM-coupled simulation of salt cavern behavior as well as regarding improved salt cavern design with special consideration of rock salt damage. In: Roberts LA, Mellegard KD, Hansen F (eds) Mechanical behavior of salt VIII: proceedings of the conference on mechanical behavior of salt, SALTMECH VIII. CRC Press/Balkema, Leiden, The Netherlands, pp 273–280Google Scholar
  29. Marketos G, Spiers CJ, Govers R (2016) Impact of rock salt creep law choice on subsidence calculations for hydrocarbon reservoirs overlain by evaporite caprocks. J Geo Res Solid Earth 121:4249–4267. https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/335958
  30. Munson DE (1979) Preliminary deformation-mechanism map for salt (with application to WIPP), SAND79-0076 report. Sandia National Laboratories, AlbuquerqueGoogle Scholar
  31. Munson DE, Dawson PR (1984) Salt constitutive modeling using mechanism maps. In: Hardy HR Jr, Langer M (eds) Proceedings of the first conference on the mechanical behavior of salt. Trans TechPu. Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany, pp 717–737Google Scholar
  32. Peach CJ, Spiers CJ, Trimby PW (2001) Effect of confining pressure on dilatation, recrystallization, and flow of rock salt at 150 °C. J Geo Res Solid Earth 106:13315–13328.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JB900300 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Perrier F, Le Mouël JL, Richon P (2010) Spatial and temporal dependence of temperature variations induced by atmospheric pressure variations in shallow underground cavities. Pure Appl Geophys 167: 253–276.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-009-0016-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Popp T, Kern H, Schultze O (2002) Permeation and development of dilatancy in rock salt. In: Cristescu ND, Hardy HR Jr, Simionescu RO (eds) Proceedings of the fifth conference the mechanical behavior of salt. Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, pp 95–124Google Scholar
  35. Popp T, Minkley W, Salzer K, Schulze O (2012) Gas transport properties of rock salt—synoptic view. In: Bérest P, Ghoreychi M, Hadj-Hassen F, Tijani M (eds) Proceedings of the seventh conference on the mechanical behavior of salt. Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK, pp 143–153Google Scholar
  36. Rokahr R, Staudtmeister K, Zapf D (2011) Rock mechanical design for a planned gas cavern field in the Preesall project area, Lancashire, UK. In: Proceedings SMRI fall meeting, York, UK, pp 189–203Google Scholar
  37. Schultze O (2007) Investigations on damage and healing in rocks. In: Wallner M, Lux KH, Minkley W, Hardy RH Jr (eds) Proceedings of the sixth conference the mechanical behavior of salt. Taylor & Francis, London, UK, pp 33–44Google Scholar
  38. Spiers CJ, Schutjens PMTM, Brzesowsky RH, Peach CJ, Liezenberg JL, Zwart HJ (1990) Experimental determination of the constitutive parameters governing creep of rocksalt by pressure solution. Geological society special publication 54, Deformation mechanisms, rheology and tectonics, The Geological Society, London, England, vol 54, pp 215–227.  https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1990.054.01.21
  39. Ter Heege JH, De Bresser JHP, Spiers CJ (2005a) Rheological behaviour of synthetic rocksalt: the interplay between water, dynamic recrystallization and deformation mechanisms. J Struct Geo 27:948–963.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2005.04.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ter Heege JH, De Bresser JHP, Spiers CJ (2005b) Dynamic recrystallization of wet synthetic polycrystalline halite: dependence of grain size distribution on flow stress, temperature and strain. Tectonophysics 396:35–57.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2004.10.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Thorel L, Ghoreychi M (1993) Rock salt damage. Experimental results and interpretation. In: Hardy HR Jr, Langer M (eds) Proceedings of the third conference on the mechanical behavior of salt. Trans Tech Publications, Clausthal, Germany, pp 175–189Google Scholar
  42. Urai JL, Spiers CJ (2007) The effect of grain boundary water on deformation mechanisms and rheology of rocksalt during long-term deformation. In: Wallner M, Lux K, Minkley W, Hardy H Jr (eds) Proceedings of the sixth conference on the mechanical behavior of salt. A. A. Balkema, The Netherlands, pp 149–158Google Scholar
  43. Urai JL, Schléder Z, Spiers CJ, Kukla PA, Lange JM, Röhling HG (2008) Flow and transport properties of salt rocks. In: Littke R, Bayer U, Gajewski D, Nelskamp S (eds) Dynamics of complex intracontinental basins: the central European basin system. Springer, Berlin, pp 277–290Google Scholar
  44. Van Sambeek LL (2012) Measurements of humidity-enhanced salt creep in salt mines: proving the Joffé effect. In: Bérest P, Ghoreychi M, Hadj-Hassen F, Tijani M (eds) Proceedings of the 7th conference on the mechanical behavior of salt. Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK, pp 179–184Google Scholar
  45. Van Sambeek LL, DiRienzo AL (2016) Analytical solutions for stress distributions and creep closure around open holes or caverns using multilinear segmented creep laws. In: Proceedings SMRI fall meeting, Salzburg, Austria, September 26–28, pp 225–238Google Scholar
  46. Van Sambeek L, Fossum A, Callahan G, Ratigan J (1993) Salt Mechanics: Empirical and Theoretical Developments. In: Hidekate Kakihana, Hardy RH Jr, Hoshi T, Toyokura K (eds) Proceedings seventh symposium on salt, vol I. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp 127–134Google Scholar
  47. Wawersik WR, Preece DS (1984) Creep testing of salt—procedures, problems and suggestions. In: Hardy HR Jr, Langer M (eds) Proceedings of the first conference on the mechanical behavior of salt. Trans Tech Publications, Clausthal, Germany, pp 421–449Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.École PolytechniquePalaiseauFrance
  2. 2.Brouard ConsultingParisFrance
  3. 3.Institut für GebirgsmechanikLeipzigGermany
  4. 4.RESPECRapid CityUSA
  5. 5.StorengyBois ColombesFrance
  6. 6.Salinen Austria AGEbenseeAustria
  7. 7.Utrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  8. 8.Aachen UniversityAachenGermany

Personalised recommendations