Ground Subsidence and Surface Cracks Evolution from Shallow-Buried Close-Distance Multi-seam Mining: A Case Study in Bulianta Coal Mine

  • Xuelin Yang
  • Guangcai WenEmail author
  • Linchao Dai
  • Haitao Sun
  • Xuelong LiEmail author
Original Paper


To explore the law of ground deformation from shallow-buried close-distance multi-seam mining, an observation station was built in the Bulianta Coal Mine to measure and record the periodic variation of related parameters about ground subsidence and surface cracks with the advancement of working face. From the data observed from the field, it can be found that, when lower seam mining, the ground subsidence above the previously mined area was deeper and steeper than that above the left pillar; besides, the influence scope of the former was larger than that of the latter. In terms of ground cracks, the ground cracks were formed ahead of the working face and developed rapidly during the period of the breakage of the immediate roof. Besides, the average interval of the ground cracks above the previous gob was 14.75 m, and still existed and hardly changed after the advancement of the working face; while that above the left pillar was 27.8 m and most of them were closed. In addition, when the advance rate of the working face was 12.8 m/day, the advance influence distance of the mining surface crack reached the minimum of 13.6 m. This finding is helpful for protecting the surficial environment in mining area during and after mining operations and is also of significance to conduct green mining in other mining areas.


Ground deformation Vertical subsidence Surface cracks Ground subsidence 



Advance angle of influence


Average mining height


Advance influence distance


Lagging angle of maximum subsidence velocity


Lagging distance of maximum subsidence velocity


Maximum of ground subsidence


Subsidence coefficient


Mining height


Dip angle of coal seam



This study was financially supported by project (51574280, 51774319, 51874348)—National Natural Science Foundation of China, project (cstc2015jcyjBX0076)—Basic Science and Frontier Technology Research Project of Chongqing, project (2016ZX05045004)—National Science and Technology Major Project of China. The authors thank Mr. Wang Chen who has conducted a lot of field work, and the authors also thank the editor and anonymous reviewers very much for their valuable advices.


  1. Bian HF, Zhang SB, Zhang QZ, Zheng NS (2014) Monitoring large-area mining subsidence by GNSS based on. IGS Stn Trans Nonferrous Metals Soc China 24(2):514–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Can E, Kuşcu Ş, Mekik C (2012) Determination of underground mining induced displacements using GPS observations in Zonguldak-Kozlu hard coal basin. Int J Coal Geol 89:62–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Can E, Mekik Ç, Kuşcu Ş, Akçın H (2013) Computation of subsidence parameters resulting from layer movements post-operations of underground mining. J Struct Geol 47:16–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Coggan J, Gao F, Stead D, Elmo D (2012) Numerical modelling of the effects of weak immediate roof lithology on coal mine roadway stability. Int J Coal Geol 90–91:100–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Deck O, Anirudh H (2010) Numerical study of the soil–structure interaction within mining subsidence areas. Comput Geosci 37:802–816Google Scholar
  6. Ding K, Ma FS, Guo J, Zhao HJ, Lu R, Liu F (2017) Investigation of the Mechanism of Roof Caving in the Jinchuan Nickel Mine, China. Rock Mech Rock Eng 51:1215–1226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Do TN, Wu J, Lin H (2017) Investigation of sloped surface subsidence during inclined seam extraction in a jointed rock mass using discontinuous deformation analysis. Int J Geomech 17(8):04017021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Du F, Yuan RF, Zheng JL, Song GJ (2017) Mechanism of abnormal strata pressure of mining under coal pillar in close distance shallow coal seams. J China Coal Soc 42(S1):24–29Google Scholar
  9. Falcón S, Gavete L, Ruiz A (1996) A model to simulate the mining subsidence problem coding and implementation of the algorithm. Comput Geosci 22:897–906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fan GW, Zhou L (2010) Mining-induced variation in water levels in unconsolidated aquifers and mechanisms of water preservation in mines. Min Sci Technol 20:0814–0819Google Scholar
  11. Feng JJ, Wang EY, Chen X (2018) Energy dissipation rate: an indicator of coal deformation and failure under static and dynamic compressive loads. Int J Min Sci Technol 28(3):397–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ghabraie B, Ren G, Zhang XY, Smith J (2015) Physical modeling of subsidence from sequential extraction of partially overlapping longwall panels and study of substrata movement characteristics. Int J Coal Geol 140:71–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ghabraie B, Ren G, Smith JV (2017) Characterising the multi-seam subsidence due to varying mining configuration, insights from physical modeling. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 93:269–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ghosh G, Sivakumar C (2018) Application of underground microseismic monitoring for ground failure and secure longwall coal mining operation: a case study in an Indian mine. J Appl Geophys 150:21–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Guo K, Wu S, Xu Y (2017a) Face recognition using both visible light image and nearinfrared image and a deep network. CAAI Trans Intell Technol 2(1):39–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Guo WB, Bai E, Yang DM (2017b) Surface subsidence characteristics and damage protection techniques of high-intensity mining in China. Adv Coal Mine Ground Control 6:157–203Google Scholar
  17. Hamdi P, Stead D, Elmo D, Töyrä J (2018) Use of an integrated finite/discrete element method-discrete fracture network approach to characterize surface subsidence associated with sublevel caving. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 103:55–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Holla L, Buizen M (1991) The ground movement, strata fracturing and changes in permeability due to deep longwall mining. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 28:207–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hu ZQ, Wang XJ, He AM (2014) Distribution characteristic and development rules of ground fissures due to coal mining in windy and sandy region. J China Coal Soc 39(1):11–18Google Scholar
  20. Hu ZX, Hu XM, Cheng WM, Zhao YY, Wu MY (2018) Performance optimization of one-component polyurethane healing agent for self-healing concrete. Constr Build Mater 179:151–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hyun JO, Saro L (2011) Integration of ground subsidence hazard maps of abandoned coal mines in Samcheok, Korea. Int J Coal Geol 86:58–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ju J, Xu J (2015) Surface stepped subsidence related to top-coal caving long wall mining of extremely thick coal seam under shallow cover. Int J Rock Mech Mining Sci 78:27–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Krzysztof T, Rafał M, Anton S (2018) Analysis of the surface horizontal displacement changes due to longwall panel advance. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 104:119–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Li WX, Dai LF, Hou XB, Lei W (2007) Fuzzy genetic programming method for analysis of ground movements due to underground mining. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 44:954–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Li WX, Wen L, Liu XM (2010) Ground movements caused by deep underground mining in Guan-Zhuang Iron Mine, Luzhong, China. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinfor 12(3):175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Li XL, Wang EY, Li ZH (2016) Rock burst monitoring by integrated microseismic and electromagnetic radiation methods. Rock Mech Rock Eng 49(11):4393–4406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Li XL, Li ZH, Wang EY (2018) Pattern recognition of mine microseismic (MS) and blasting events based on wave fractal features. Fractals. 26(3):1850029-1–1850029-18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Liu QM (2010) Analysis on mining velocity effect of mine pressure behavior of fully mechanized longwall coal mining face with shallow mining depth. Coal Sci Technol 38(7):24–26Google Scholar
  29. Liu QM, Li WP, Li XQ, Hu G (2011) Study on deformation characteristics of coal roof overlapping mining under the coverage of magmatic rocks with DEM simulation. Pro Eng 26:101–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lu SQ, Li L, Cheng YP (2017) Mechanical failure mechanisms and forms of normal and deformed coal combination containing gas: model development and analysis. Eng Fail Anal 80:241–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Manekar G, Shome D, Chaudhari M (2017) Prediction of subsidence parameters & 3-D analysis at Balaghat underground manganese mine of MOIL limited. India Pro Eng 191:1075–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mckee DW, Clement SJ, Almutairi J (2018) Survey of advances and challenges in intelligent autonomy for distributed cyber-physical systems. CAAI Trans Intell Technol 3(2):75–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Newman C, Agioutantis Z, Leon GB (2017) Assessment of potential impacts to surface and subsurface water bodies due to longwall mining. Int J Min Sci Technol 27:57–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Park I, Choi J, Lee MJ (2012) Application of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system to ground subsidence hazard mapping. Comput Geosci 48:228–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Peng SS (2009) CISPM-comprehensive and integrated subsidence prediction model USER’S MANUAL. Department of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering and Mineral Resources. West Virginia University, MorgantownGoogle Scholar
  36. Pu H, Zhang J (2011) Mechanical model of control of key strata in deep mining. Min Sci Technol 21:267–272Google Scholar
  37. Qian C, Fang YC (2018) Adaptive tracking control of flapping wing micro-air vehicles with averaging theory. CAAI Trans Intell Technol 3(1):18–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ren G, Li G, Kulessa M (2014) Application of a generalized influence function method for subsidence prediction in multi-seam long-wall extraction. Geotech Geol Eng 32(4):1123–1131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Salmi EF, Nazem M, Karakus M (2017) Numerical analysis of a large landslide induced by coal mining subsidence. Eng Geol 217:141–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sasaoka T, Takamoto H, Shimada H, Oya J, Hamanaka A, Matsui K (2015) Surface subsidence due to underground mining operation under weak geological condition in Indonesia. J Rock Mech Geotech Eng 7:337–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sepehri M, Apel DB, Hall RA (2017) Prediction of mining-induced surface subsidence and ground movements at a Canadian diamond mine using an Elastoplastic finite element model. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 100:73–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shabanimashcool M, Li CC (2012) Numerical modelling of longwall mining and stability analysis of the gates in a coal mine. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 51:24–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shahab DM (2011) Reservoir simulation and modeling based on artificial intelligence and data mining (AI&DM). J Nat Gas Sci Eng 3:697–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shen WL, Bai JB, Li WF, Wang XY (2018) Prediction of relative displacement for entry roof with weak plane under the effect of mining abutment stress. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 71:309–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Singh G (2015) Conventional approaches for assessment of caving behavior and support requirement with regard to strata control experiences in longwall workings. J Rock Mech Geotech Eng 7:291–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Suchowerska A, Merifield R, Carter J (2013) Vertical stress changes in multi seam mining under supercritical longwall panels. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 61:306–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Suchowerska A, Carter J, Hambleton J (2016) Geomechanics of subsidence above single and multi-seam coal mining. J Rock Mech Geotech Eng 8:304–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sui W (1999) Engineering geological study on soil mass deformation during subsidence. Monograph. China University of Mining & Technology, XuzhouGoogle Scholar
  49. Torres JJ, Rodriguez CA (2017) Metaheuristic post-optimization of the NIST repository of covering arrays. CAAI Trans Intell Technol 2(1):31–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tzampoglou P, Loupasakis C (2018) Evaluating geological and geotechnical data for the study of land subsidence phenomena at the perimeter of the Amyntaio coalmine, Greece. Int J Min Sci Technol 28:601–612 (in press) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wang GF, Zhang DS (2018) Innovation practice and development prospect of intelligent fully mechanized technology for coal mining. J China Univ Min Technol 47:459–467Google Scholar
  52. Wang SF, Li XB, Wang SY (2017) Separation and fracturing in overlying strata disturbed by longwall mining in a mineral deposit seam. Eng Geol 226:257–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wang CL, Zhang CS, Zhao XD, Liao L, Zhang SL (2018) Dynamic structural evolution of overlying strata during shallow coal seam longwall mining. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 103:20–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wu K, Li L, Wang XL, Zhang LG, Wang ZS, Sun XM (2009) Research of ground cracks caused by fully mechanized sublevel caving mining based on field survey. 6th Int Conf Min Sci Technol Proc Earth Planet Sci 1:1095–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wu SC, Han LQ, Li ZP, Guo C, Zhou JX (2018) Discussion on the methods for determining slope safety factor based on stress state of the sliding surface. J China Univ Min Technol 47:719–726Google Scholar
  56. Xia KZ, Chen CX, Fu H, Pan YC, Deng YY (2016) Mining-induced ground deformation in tectonic stress metal mines: a case study. Eng Geol 210:212–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Xie JL, Xu JL, Wang F, Guo JK, Liu DL (2014) Deformation effect of lateral roof roadway in close coal seams after repeated mining. Int J Min Sci Technol 24(5):597–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Xu YX (2015) Coal mining science (monograph). China University of Mining and Technology, XuzhouGoogle Scholar
  59. Xuan DY, Xu JL, Wang BL, Hong T (2015) Borehole Investigation of the effectiveness of grout injection technology on coal mine subsidence control. Rock Mech Rock Eng 48:2435–2445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yang JH (2015) Effect of displacement loading rate on mechanical properties of sandstone. Electron J Geotech Eng 20(02):591–602Google Scholar
  61. Zhang Z, Nemcik J (2013) Friction factor of water flow through rough rock fractures. Rock Mech Rock Eng 46(5):1125–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zhang X, Hu XM, Wu MY, Zhao YY, Yu C (2018) Effects of different catalysts on the structure and properties of polyurethane/water glass grouting materials. J Appl Polym Sci 135:27Google Scholar
  63. Zhao T, Zhang Z, Tan Y, Shi C, Wei P, Li Q (2014) An innovative approach to thin coal seam mining of complex geological conditions by pressure regulation. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 71:249–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zhou DW, Wu K, Bai ZH, Hu ZQ, Li L, Xu YK, Xinpeng D (2017) Formation and development mechanism of ground crack caused by coal mining: effects of overlying key strata. Bull Eng Geol Environ 76:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zhu WB (2010) Study on the instability mechanism of key strata structure in repeated mining of shallow close distance seams. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Mining and Technology, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  66. Zhu GH, Lian DJ (2012) Analysis on mining induced cumulative effective of surface cracks in mining areas. J Saf Sci Technol 8(5):47–52Google Scholar
  67. Zhu D, Tu S (2017) Mechanisms of support failure induced by repeated mining under gobs created by two-seam room mining and prevention measures. Eng Fail Anal 82:161–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Zou QL, Lin BQ (2017) Modeling the relationship between macro- and meso-parameters of coal using a combined optimization method. Environ Earth Sci 76(14):479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zou QL, Lin BQ (2018) Fluid-solid coupling characteristics of gas-bearing coal subject to hydraulic slotting: an experimental investigation. Energy Fuels 32(2):1047–1060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Zuo JP, Peng SP, Li YJ, Chen ZH, Xie HP (2009) Investigation of karst collapse based on 3 D seismic technique and DDA method at Xieqiao coal mine, China. Int J Coal Geol 78:276–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, College of Resources and Environmental ScienceChongqing UniversityChongqingChina
  2. 2.Chongqing Research Institute of China Coal Technology and Engineering Group CropChongqingChina
  3. 3.National Key Laboratory of Gas Disaster Detecting, Preventing and Emergency ControllingChongqingChina

Personalised recommendations