Non-monotonic Relaxation and Memory Effect of Rock Salt

  • Yi He
  • Deyi Jiang
  • Jie Chen
  • Rong Liu
  • Jinyang Fan
  • Xiang Jiang
Technical Note


In 2017, China’s natural gas consumption was 239.3 billion cubic metres, while its output was 147.4 billion cubic metres. The large natural gas consumption imposes the urgent need to accelerate the construction of gas storage facilities to meet seasonal gas demand. Rock salt displays eminent fundamental physical and mechanical properties due to low permeability and porosity, good rheological properties, and self-healing capacity. It has very promising prospects for the creation of deep geological storage sites for energy or waste (Chen et al. 2015; Ghanbarzadeh et al. 2015; Price 1986; Weisbrod et al. 2012). The long-term stability and permeability of salt caverns have received extensive attention (Nazary Moghadam et al. 2013; Urai et al. 1986; Zhang et al. 2015).

The relaxation behaviours of rock have been studied to ensure the long-term stability of underground structures (Xue et al. 2017). The previous studies have shown that the relaxation curves of different rocks,...


Rock salt Stress relaxation Non-monotonic Memory effect Multiplicative processes model 

List of Symbols


Gap between two rigid indenters


Axial compressive force


Loading time




Waiting time






Axial relaxation force


Fitting parameter


Fitting parameter


Peak time

Fr(1 s)

Relaxation force measured during the first second of the second phase of relaxation


Probability distribution function of the relaxation rate


Number of relaxation modes

\({\lambda _i}\)

Relaxation rate of mode i


Equilibrium state


Euler constant



We are grateful for the financial support from the Special Funding for Postdoctoral Research Projects in Chongqing (XmT2018011), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51834003). This study was also supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2018CDQYZH0018). We are also grateful to Prof. Xiaoli Chen from School of Foreign Languages and Cultures at Chongqing University, Mr. Ngaha Tiedeu William from State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control at Chongqing University for their linguistic assistance during the preparation of this manuscript.

Supplementary material

603_2018_1718_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.8 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1858 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and ControlChongqing UniversityChongqingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Civil EngineeringChongqing UniversityChongqingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.National Joint Engineering Research Center of Geohazards Prevention in the Reservoir AreasChongqing UniversityChongqingPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Department of Earth SciencesUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

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