Correlation Between Seismic Damages of Tawarayama Tunnel and Ground Deformation Under the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake

  • Xuepeng Zhang
  • Yujing JiangEmail author
  • Yasuyuki Hirakawa
  • Yue Cai
  • Satoshi Sugimoto
Original Paper


The spatial correlation of the ground deformation at Mt. Tawarayama in Kumamoto City in Japan with the seismic damages of Tawarayama tunnel was developed to explore whether the seismic damages of underground structures are related to the ground deformation. A pair of digital elevation model data sets were captured from the high-density airborne light detection and ranging data before and after the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake. A new variant of iteratively closest point (ICP) algorithm named combination and classification ICP was introduced to detect the three-dimensional ground deformation field. The seismic damages of Tawarayama tunnel caused by the earthquake were studied via site investigation. The results indicated that the strong ground deformation can reflect the seismic performance of the tunnel to some extent. Furthermore, the results of the ground deformation direction validated the assumption of seismic wave propagation along the tunnel. It gives a clear explanation for the mechanism of the seismic damages under the earthquake force, especially lining cracks, pavement damage, and construction joint damage.


2016 Kumamoto earthquake Tawarayama tunnel Ground deformation Seismic damage 



Point-to-point distance


Point-to-plane distance


Transformation matrix in the homogeneous coordinate system


Point in source point cloud


Matching point of point ps in target point cloud


Normal vector of point pt calculated by PCA


Components of a rotation matrix (i, j = 1, 2, 3)


Translation component in the x-direction


Translation component in the y-direction


Translation component in the z-direction



This work was funded by China Scholarship Council (CSC No. 201508370077), Provincial Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (No. ZR2017PEE018), JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 17H03506), and JSPS-NSFC Bilateral Joint Research Project, Japan. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the support of the Kumamoto River and National Highway Office, Kyushu Regional Development Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism in the site investigation of this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xuepeng Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yujing Jiang
    • 2
    Email author
  • Yasuyuki Hirakawa
    • 3
  • Yue Cai
    • 4
    • 5
  • Satoshi Sugimoto
    • 2
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Mining Disaster Prevention and Control Co-founded by Shandong Province and the Ministry of Science and TechnologyShandong University of Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina
  2. 2.School of EngineeringNagasaki UniversityNagasakiJapan
  3. 3.Asia Air Survey Co., Ltd.KumamotoJapan
  4. 4.School of Civil EngineeringBeijing Jiaotong UniversityBeijingChina
  5. 5.Key Laboratory of Urban Underground Engineering of Ministry of EducationBeijing Jiaotong UniversityBeijingChina

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