Advertisement

DEM Modeling of Interaction Between the Propagating Fracture and Multiple Pre-existing Cemented Discontinuities in Shale

  • Zhina Liu
  • Haoran Xu
  • Zhihong ZhaoEmail author
  • Zhaowei Chen
Technical Note
  • 162 Downloads

Abstract

It is known that pre-existing discontinuities can act as planes of weakness that divert the propagating fractures in rocks, but previous studies have mostly focused on the interaction between the propagating fractures and a single pre-existing discontinuity. The influences of multiple pre-existing cemented discontinuities, such as calcite veins and bedding planes, on the fracture propagation still remain poorly understood. In this study, particle-based discrete element method was used to characterize the fracturing behavior of shale containing multiple cemented veins and bedding planes through numerical semi-circular bend (SCB) tests. Model results show that geometrical and mechanical properties of multiple pre-existing cemented discontinuities can significantly affect the interaction modes between the induced tensile fractures and pre-existing cemented discontinuities, as well as the mode I fracture toughness of shale. The typical mechanical interaction modes between the induced tensile fractures and the multiple pre-existing cemented discontinuities and the corresponding conditions are given. The effect of pre-coexisting discontinuities on the peak loads for shale during SCB tests is also discussed.

Keywords

DEM Shale Pre-existing cemented discontinuities Semi-circular bend tests 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Z.L. and H.X. are financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41502190) and Science Foundation of China University of Petroleum, Beijing (No. 2462014YJRC055). Z.Z. is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51509138 and No. 51779123).

References

  1. Advani SH, Lee TS, Lee JK (1990) Three-dimensional modeling of hydraulic fractures in layered media: Part I—finite element formulations. J Energy Res Technol 112:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blanton TL (1982) An experimental study of interaction between hydraulically induced and pre-existing fractures. In: Paper SPE 10847 presented at the SPE unconventional gas recovery symposium, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USAGoogle Scholar
  3. Fu W, Ames BC, Bunger AP, Savitski AA (2016) Impact of partially cemented and non-persistent natural fractures on hydraulic fracture propagation. Rock Mech Rock Eng 49:4519–4526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gale JFW, Reed RM, Holder J (2007) Natural fractures in the Barnett shale and their importance for hydraulic fracture treatments. AAPG Bull 91:603–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gale JFW, Laubach SE, Olson JE, Eichhubl P, Fall A (2014) Natural fractures in shale: a review and new observations. AAPG Bull 98:2165–2216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gordeliy E, Peirce A (2013) Coupling schemes for modeling hydraulic fracture propagation using the XFEM. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 253:305–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gu H, Weng X (2010) Criterion for fractures crossing frictional interfaces at non-orthogonal angles. In: Paper ARMA 10–198 presented at the 44th US rock mechanics symposium and 5th US-Canada rock mechanics symposium, American Rock Mechanics Association, Salt Lake City, UtahGoogle Scholar
  8. Gu H, Weng X, Lund J, Mack M, Granguly U, Suarez-Rivera R (2011) Hydraulic fracture crossing natural fracture at non-orthogonal angles: a criterion, its validation and applications. In: Paper SPE 139984-MS presented at SPE hydraulic fracturing technology conference. Society of Petroleum Engineers, The Woodlands, TexasGoogle Scholar
  9. Itasca Consulting Group Inc (2008) PFC2D user's guide. Minneapolis, MNGoogle Scholar
  10. Jeffrey RG, Zhang X, Thiercelin MJ (2009b) Hydraulic fracture offsetting in naturally fractured reservoirs: quantifying a long-recognized process. In: SPE hydraulic fracturing technology conference, The Woodlands, TexasGoogle Scholar
  11. Jeffrey RG, Bunger AP, Lecampion B, Zhang X, Chen Z, van As A, Alison DP, De Beer W, Dudley JW, Siebrits E, Thiercelin MJ, Mainguy M (2009a) Measuring hydraulic fracture growth in naturally fractured rock. In: SPE annual technical conference and exhibition, New Orleans, LouisianaGoogle Scholar
  12. Kuruppu MD, Obara Y, Ayatollahi MR, Chong KP, Funatsu T (2014) ISRM-suggested method for determining the mode I static fracture toughness using semi-circular bend specimen. Rock Mech Rock Eng 47:267–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lee HP, Olson JE, Holder J, Gale JFW, Myers RD (2015) The interaction of propagating opening mode fractures with preexisting discontinuities in shale. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 120:169–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lee HP, Olson JE, Schultz RA (2018) Interaction analysis of propagating opening mode fractures with veins using the discrete element method. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 103:275–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lim IL, Johnston IW, Choi SK (1993) Stress intensity factors for semi-circular specimens under three-point bending. Eng Fract Mech 44:363–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lim IL, Johnston IW, Choi SK, Boland JN (1994) Fracture testing of a soft rock with semi-circular specimens under three-point loading, Part 1—Mode I. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 31:185–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Liu E (2005) Effects of fracture aperture and roughness on hydraulic and mechanical properties of rocks: implication of seismic characterization of fractured reservoirs. J Geophys Eng 2:38–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Park B, Min KB, Thompson N, Horsrud P (2018) Three-dimensional bonded-particle discrete element modeling of mechanical behavior of transversely isotropic rock. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 110:120–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Potyondy DO, Cundall PA (2004) A bonded-particle model for Fock. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 41:1329–1364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Renshaw CE, Pollard DD (1995) An experimentally verified criterion for propagation across unbounded frictional interfaces in brittle, linear elastic materials. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 32:237–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Simpson MD, Patterson R, Wu K (2016) Study of stress shadow effects in eagle ford shale: Insight from field data analysis. In: Paper ARMA 16–190 presented at the 50th US rock mechanics/geomechanics symposium, American Rock Mechanics Association, Houston, TexasGoogle Scholar
  22. Virgo S, Abe S, Urai JL (2013) Extension fracture propagation in rocks with veins: insight into the crack-seal process using discrete element method modeling. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 118:236–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Virgo S, Abe S, Urai JL (2014) The evolution of crack seal vein and fracture networks in an evolving stress field: Insights from discrete element models of fracture sealing. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 119:708–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Xie L, Min KB, Song Y (2016) Simulation of hydraulic fracturing and its interactions with a pre-existing fracture using displacement discontinuity method. J Nat Gas Sci Eng 36:1284–1294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zhang X, Jeffrey RG, Thiercelin M (2007) Deflection and propagation of fluid-driven fractures at frictional bedding interfaces: a numerical investigation. J Struct Geol 29:396–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhina Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Haoran Xu
    • 2
    • 3
  • Zhihong Zhao
    • 3
    Email author
  • Zhaowei Chen
    • 4
  1. 1.State Key Lab of Petroleum Resources and ProspectingChina University of PetroleumBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of GeologyChina University of PetroleumBeijingChina
  3. 3.Department of Civil EngineeringTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina
  4. 4.CNPC Engineering Technology R&D Company LimitedBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations