Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering

, Volume 52, Issue 3, pp 841–851 | Cite as

Method for Measuring Rock Mass Characteristics and Evaluating the Grouting-Reinforced Effect Based on Digital Drilling

  • Qi WangEmail author
  • Hongke Gao
  • Hengchang Yu
  • Bei Jiang
  • Bohong Liu
Original Paper


Various types of broken rock masses, such as those in fault-fracture zones and fracture zones, which form as a result of disturbance from tunnelling, are often encountered during underground engineering construction. These rock masses have low self-supporting capacity and poor stability, which can easily cause damage to surrounding rock, such as large deformation features, collapse and falling blocks, etc., posing a threat to construction safety. During a field project, reinforcement by grouting is a primary means for addressing the aforementioned problems. The effective measurement of rock mass characteristics (e.g., rock layer interfaces and the broken area of surrounding rock) provides a basis for the reasonable design of a grouting scheme. The quantitative evaluation of the effect of rock mass grouting is essential for optimizing the grouting scheme. In view of this, in this study, a multi-functional rock mass digital drilling test system and a special polycrystalline diamond compact drill bit for digital testing were developed and were applied to conduct digital drilling tests on intact, broken and grouted rock masses. In addition, a digital drilling test (DDT) technique-based method for measuring rock mass characteristics in real time and rapidly evaluating the grouting effect was proposed. The proposed method is capable of identifying rock layer interfaces, determining the broken area and obtaining the equivalent strength of grouted rock masses. This method is advantageous for obtaining quantitative and rapid test results, which can provide a theoretical basis and technical means for optimizing the grouting parameters and designing support schemes for underground engineering construction.


Digital drilling Identifying rock layers Measuring broken area Evaluating grouting effect Drilling parameters Equivalent uniaxial compressive strength 

List of symbols


Drilling rate


Rotational speed


Drilling torque


Drilling pressure

\({\eta _{\text{c}}}\)

Cutting energy consumed by drill bit to cut a unit volume of rock


Equivalent uniaxial compressive strength


No. of each test specimen


No. of each layer of a test specimen


Drilling depth


Drilling time


Work done by M


Work done by F


Energy consumed to cut and crush the rock


Energy consumed by the friction between the drill bit and the bottom rock


Radius of the special drill bit


Length of the ith cutting edge


Coefficient of friction between the cutting edges of the drill bit and the bottom rock


Uniaxial compressive strength of each rock layer of each rock specimen

\({\delta _{\text{k}}}\)

Ratio of the absolute value of the difference in ηc between an intact mass and a broken rock mass to the ηc for the same intact mass

\({\eta _{{\text{cw}}}}\)

Amount of energy consumed by the drill bit to cut a unit volume of an intact rock mass

\({\eta _{{\text{cp}}}}\)

Amount of energy consumed by the drill bit to cut a unit volume of a broken rock mass

\({\delta _{\text{m}}}\)

Ratio of the absolute value of the difference in ηc between a grouted and a broken rock mass to the ηc for the same grouted rock mass

\({\eta _{{\text{cz}}}}\)

Amount of energy consumed by the drill bit to cut a unit volume of a grouted rock mass



This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant numbers 51674154, 51874188, 51704125); the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant numbers 2017T100116, 2017T100491, 2016M590150, 2016M602144); and Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant numbers 2017GGX30101, ZR2017QEE013).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Center of Geotechnical and Structural EngineeringShandong UniversityJinanChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory for Geo-mechanics and Deep Underground EngineeringChina University of Mining and TechnologyBeijingChina
  3. 3.School of Civil Engineering and ArchitectureUniversity of JinanJinanChina

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