Advertisement

Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering

, Volume 52, Issue 1, pp 47–59 | Cite as

Fracturing of Migmatite Monitored by Acoustic Emission and Ultrasonic Sounding

  • M. PetružálekEmail author
  • T. Lokajíček
  • T. Svitek
  • Z. Jechumtálová
  • P. Kolář
  • J. Šílený
Original Paper
  • 260 Downloads

Abstract

Here, we present an experimental study of the fracturing of anisotropic migmatite with plane-parallel structure (foliation). Four specimens, with different dips of foliation, including subhorizontal (13°), subvertical (86°), and oblique (47°, 67°), were uniaxially loaded up to failure. Acoustic emission monitoring and ultrasonic sounding were applied for fracturing characterization. In case of subhorizontal and subvertical foliation, the tensile source type played an important role before reaching nucleation stress when shearing became dominant. The dominance of non-tension microcracking was characteristic for oblique foliation. The uniaxial loading of migmatite resulted in triaxial stress state regardless of the foliation dip. The minimum stress axis was in the subhorizontal direction of the foliation dip. The triaxial stress state caused the preferential orientation of induced shear and tension microcracks that had the same azimuthal orientation as the foliation. Preferential microcracking resulted in preferential orientation of the failure plane. Based on the anisotropic behavior of migmatite’s characteristic mechanical properties, as well as its mechanism of failure that is typical for anisotropic rocks, the obtained conclusions may be generalized for other types of metamorphic anisotropic rocks with a plane-parallel structure.

Keywords

Fracturing Anisotropy Source mechanism Acoustic emission Ultrasonic sounding 

Abbreviations

AE

Acoustic emission

CD

Crack damage threshold

CI

Crack initiation threshold

FPN

Fault plane nucleation

MT

Moment tensor

UCS

Uniaxial compressive strength

US

Ultrasonic sounding

Notes

Acknowledgements

Our study was partly supported by research project 16-03950S with funding provided by the Czech Science Foundation, and by Czech Academy of Sciences project RVO 67985831.

References

  1. Bieniawski ZT (1967) Mechanism of brittle fracture of rock: part II—experimental studies. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 4:407–423.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(67)90031-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brace WF, Paulding BW, Scholz C (1966) Dilatancy in the fracture of crystalline rocks. J Geophys Res 71:3939–3953.  https://doi.org/10.1029/JZ071i016p03939 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cai M, Kaiser P, Tasaka Y et al (2004) Generalized crack initiation and crack damage stress thresholds of brittle rock masses near underground excavations. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 41:833–847.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2004.02.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cho JW, Kim H, Jeon S, Min KB (2012) Deformation and strength anisotropy of Asan gneiss, Boryeong shale, and Yeoncheon schist. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 50:158–169.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2011.12.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dellinger J, Vernik L (1994) Do traveltimes in pulse-transmission experiments yield anisotropic group or phase velocities ? Geophysics 59:1774–1779.  https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1443564 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Eberhardt E, Stead D, Stimpson B, Read RS (1998) Identifying crack initiation and propagation thresholds in brittle rock. Can Geotech J 35:222–233.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cgj-35-2-222 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eberhardt E, Stimpson B, Stead D (1999) Effects of grain size on the initiation and propagation thresholds of stress-induced brittle fractures. Rock Mech Rock Eng 32:81–99.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s006030050026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hakala M, Kuula H, Hudson JA (2007) Estimating the transversely isotropic elastic intact rock properties for in situ stress measurement data reduction: a case study of the Olkiluoto mica gneiss, Finland. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 44:14–46.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2006.04.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. International Society for Rock Mechanics (2007) The ISRM blue book: the complete ISRM suggested methods for rock characterization, testing and monitoring: 1974–2006. In: International society for rock mechanics, commission on testing methodsGoogle Scholar
  10. Kim H, Cho JW, Song I, Min KB (2012) Anisotropy of elastic moduli, P-wave velocities, and thermal conductivities of Asan Gneiss, Boryeong Shale, and Yeoncheon Schist in Korea. Eng Geol 147–148:68–77.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2012.07.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kwaśniewski M (2007) Mechanical behaviour of rocks under true triaxial compression conditions—volumetric strain and dilatancy. Arch Min Sci 52:409–435Google Scholar
  12. Kwiatek G, Charalampidou E-M, Dresen G, Stanchits S (2014) An improved method for seismic moment tensor inversion of acoustic emissions through assessment of sensor coupling and sensitivity to incidence angle. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 65:153–161.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2013.11.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lajtai EZ (1971) A theoretical and experimental evaluation of the Griffith theory of brittle fracture. Tectonophysics 11:129–156.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(71)90060-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lajtai EZ (1974) Brittle fracture in compression. Int J Fract 10:525–536.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00155255 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lei XL, Nishizawa O, Kusunose K, Satoh T (1992) Fractal structure of the hypocenter distributions and focal mechanism solutions of acoustic emission in two granites of different grain sizes. J Phys Earth 40:617–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lei XL, Nishizawa O, Kusunose K et al (2000) Compressive failure of mudstone samples containing quartz veins using rapid AE monitoring: the role of asperities. Tectonophysics 328:329–340.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-1951(00)00215-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lei XL, Masuda K, Nishizawa O et al (2004) Detailed analysis of acoustic emission activity during catastrophic fracture of faults in rock. J Struct Geol 26:247–258.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8141(03)00095-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lockner D (1993) The role of acoustic emission in the study of rock fracture. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 30:883–899.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(93)90041-B CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lockner DA, Byerlee JD, Kuksenko V et al (1991) Quasi-static fault growth and shear fracture energy in granite. Nature 350:39–42.  https://doi.org/10.1038/350039a0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lokajíček T, Svitek T (2015) Laboratory measurement of elastic anisotropy on spherical rock samples by longitudinal and transverse sounding under confining pressure. Ultrasonics 56:294–302.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultras.2014.08.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Manthei G (2005) Characterization of acoustic emission sources in a rock salt specimen under triaxial compression. Bull Seismol Soc Am 95:1674–1700.  https://doi.org/10.1785/0120040076 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Martin CD, Chandler NA (1994) The progressive fracture of Lac du Bonnet granite. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 31:643–659.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(94)90005-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Martin C, Read R (1996) AECL’s mine-by experiment: a test tunnel in brittle rock. In: Aubertin M, Hassani F, Mitri H (eds) Rock mechanics tools and techniques, vols 1 and 2. A.A. Balkema, Montreal, pp 13–24Google Scholar
  24. Nasseri MH, Rao KS, Ramamurthy T (1997) Failure mechanism in schistose rocks. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 34:460.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1365-1609(97)00099-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nasseri MH, Rao K, Ramamurthy T (2003) Anisotropic strength and deformational behavior of Himalayan schists. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 40:3–23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1365-1609(02)00103-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nicksiar M, Martin CD (2012) Evaluation of methods for determining crack initiation in compression tests on low-porosity rocks. Rock Mech Rock Eng 45:607–617.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-012-0221-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nicksiar M, Martin CD (2013) Crack initiation stress in low porosity crystalline and sedimentary rocks. Eng Geol 154:64–76.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2012.12.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ohtsu M (1991) Simplified moment tensor analysis and unified decomposition of acoustic emission source: application to in situ hydrofracturing test. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 96:6211–6221.  https://doi.org/10.1029/90JB02689 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Okubo S, Nishimatsu Y, He C (1990) Loading rate dependence of class II rock behaviour in uniaxial and triaxial compression tests—an application of a proposed new control method. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 27:559–562.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(90)91007-T CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Petruzalek M, Lokajicek T, Svitek T (2017) Ultrasonic method for estimation of crack initiation stress. In: 51st US rock mechanics/geomechanics symposium. American Rock Mechanics Association, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  31. Petružálek M, Vilhelm J, Lokajíček T, Rudajev V (2007) Assessment of P-wave anisotropy by means of velocity elipsoid. Acta Geodyn Geomater 4:23–31Google Scholar
  32. Petružálek M, Vilhelm J, Rudajev V et al (2013) Determination of the anisotropy of elastic waves monitored by a sparse sensor network. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 60:208–216.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2012.12.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Petružálek M, Jechumtálová Z, Kolář P, Adamová P, Svitek T, Šílený J, Lokajíček T (2018) Acoustic emission in a laboratory: mechanism of microearthquakes using alternative source models. J. Geophys. Res. 123(6):4965–4982.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2017JB015393 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Přikryl R, Lokajíček T, Pros Z, Klíma K (2007) Fabric symmetry of low anisotropic rocks inferred from ultrasonic sounding: Implications for the geomechanical models. Tectonophysics 431:83–96.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2006.05.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pros Z, Lokajíček T, Klíma K (1998) Laboratory approach to the study of elastic anisotropy on rock samples. Pure Appl Geophys 151:619–629.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s000240050133 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ptacek J, Melichar R, Hajek A et al (2013) Structural analysis within the Rozna and Olsi uranium deposits (Strazek moldanubicum) for the estimation of deformation and stress conditions of underground gas storage. Acta Geodyn Geomater 10:237–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rao MVMS, Lakshmi KJP, Rao GMN et al (2011) Precursory microcracking and brittle failure of Latur basalt and migmatite gneiss under compressive loading. Curr Sci 101:1053–1059.  https://doi.org/10.2307/24079285 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rawling GC, Baud P, Wong T (2002) Dilatancy, brittle strength, and anisotropy of foliated rocks: experimental deformation and micromechanical modeling. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 107:ETG 8-1–ETG 8-14.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000472 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sedlak P, Hirose Y, Khan SA et al (2009) New automatic localization technique of acoustic emission signals in thin metal plates. Ultrasonics 49:254–262.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultras.2008.09.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sellers EJ, Kataka MO, Linzer LM (2003) Source parameters of acoustic emission events and scaling with mining-induced seismicity. J Geophys Res Solid Earth.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000670 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shea WT, Kronenberg AK (1993) Strength and anisotropy of foliated rocks with varied mica contents. J Struct Geol 15:1097–1121.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8141(93)90158-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Souček K, Vavro M, Staš L et al (2017) Geotechnical characterization of Bukov underground research facility. Proc Eng 191:711–718.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.05.236 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stanchits S, Vinciguerra S, Dresen G (2006) Ultrasonic velocities, acoustic emission characteristics and crack damage of basalt and granite. Pure Appl Geophys 163:974–993.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-006-0059-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Stierle E, Vavryčuk V, Kwiatek G et al (2016) Seismic moment tensors of acoustic emissions recorded during laboratory rock deformation experiments: Sensitivity to attenuation and anisotropy. Geophys J Int 205:38–50.  https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggw009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Stovas A, Ursin B (2007) Equivalent time-average and effective medium for periodic layers. Geophys Prospect 55:871–882.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2478.2007.00653.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tang XM, Zhu Z, Toksöz MN (1994) Radiation patterns of compressional and shear transducers at the surface of an elastic half-space. J Acoust Soc Am 95:71–76.  https://doi.org/10.1121/1.408299 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tapponnier P, Brace W (1976) Development of stress-induced microcracks in Westerly Granite. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 13:103–112.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(76)91937-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Thompson BD, Young RP, Lockner DA (2009) Premonitory acoustic emissions and stick-slip in natural and smooth-faulted Westerly granite. J Geophys Res 114:B02205.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JB005753 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tien YM, Kuo MC, Juang CH (2006) An experimental investigation of the failure mechanism of simulated transversely isotropic rocks. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 43:1163–1181.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2006.03.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wawersik WR, Fairhurst C (1970) A study of brittle rock fracture in laboratory compression experiments. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 7:561–575.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(70)90007-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zang A, Wagner FC, Stanchits S et al (1998) Source analysis of acoustic emissions in Aue granite cores under symmetric and asymmetric compressive loads. Geophys J Int 135(3):1113–1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zang A, Yoon JS, Stephansson O, Heidbach O (2013) Fatigue hydraulic fracturing by cyclic reservoir treatment enhances permeability and reduces induced seismicity. Geophys J Int 195:1282–1287.  https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggt301 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of GeologyThe Czech Academy of SciencesPrague 6-SuchdolCzech Republic
  2. 2.Institute of GeophysicsThe Czech Academy of SciencesPrague 4-SpořilovCzech Republic
  3. 3.Faculty of ScienceCharles University in PraguePrague 2Czech Republic

Personalised recommendations