A Sub-Level Caving Algorithm for Large-Scale, Small-Strain, Numerical Simulations
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In block and panel caving, mobilization of the ore is achieved without drilling and blasting. The disintegration is brought about by natural processes that include the in situ fracturing of the rock mass, stress redistribution, the limited strength of the rock mass, and gravitational forces. Sub-level caving (SLC) requires the transformation of in situ ore into a mobile state by conventional drilling and blasting. This may be a result of a high rock mass strength or strategy to reduce dilution.
The SLC method is thought to have evolved as an up-scaling technique to the top slicing mining method (Peele 1918). Block caving, in turn, was the logical scale-up from sub-level caving. In the first application of sub-level caving, the ore was not drilled and blasted completely between two sub-levels, but only parts were broken by induced caving; hence the name sub-level caving (Janelid 1972). At current day SLC operations, the ore mass between the sub-levels is blasted. As a...
KeywordsSub-level caving Numerical model
List of Symbols
Scaled draw velocity based on scheduled tons
Maximum draw velocity to ensure pseudo-static equilibrium
Applied draw velocity (Vdraw × Vmax)
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