Hemodialysis biomarkers: total advanced glycation end products (AGEs) against oxidized human serum albumin (HSAox)

  • Annalisa NoceEmail author
  • Valentina RovellaEmail author
  • Giulia Marrone
  • Giada Cattani
  • Viviana Zingaretti
  • Dolores Limongi
  • Cartesio D’Agostini
  • Roberto Sorge
  • Maurizio Casasco
  • Nicola Di Daniele
  • Giorgio Ricci
  • Alessio Bocedi
Original Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Diabetic Nephropathy



Nephropathic patients show higher levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and oxidized human serum albumin (HSAox) compared to healthy subjects. These two classes of compounds are formed as the result of oxidative insults; for this reason, they can be useful oxidative stress biomarkers. The present study examines the variation of AGEs and HSAox in hemodialysis (HD) patients before and after dialysis session, evaluating the impact of different dialytic techniques and filters on their removal.


A total of 50 healthy subjects (control group) and 130 HD patients were enrolled in the study. Hemodialysis patients were subdivided based on dialytic techniques: 109 in diffusive technique and 22 in convective technique. We monitored HSAox, AGEs and other laboratory parameters at early morning in healthy subjects and in HD patients before and after the dialysis procedures.


The level of HSAox decreases after a single dialytic session (from 58.5 ± 8.8% to 41.5 ± 11.1%), but the concentration of total AGEs increases regardless of adopted dialytic techniques (from 6.8 ± 5.2 µg/ml to 9.2 ± 4.4 µg/ml). In our study, levels of HSAox and total AGEs are similar in diabetic and non-diabetic HD patients. The increase in total AGEs after dialysis was only observed using polysulfone filters but was absent with polymethacrylate filters.


HSAox is a simple and immediate method to verify the beneficial effect of a single dialysis session on the redox imbalance, always present in HD patients. Total AGEs assayed by ELISA procedure seem to be a less reliable biomarker in this population.


Advanced glycation end products Oxidized human serum albumin Hemodialysis Oxidative stress Biomarker 



Advanced glycation end products


Bovine serum albumin


Chronic kidney disease


5,5′-Dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic) acid


End-stage renal disease


Estimated glomerular filtration rate


Glomerular filtration rate

Glo 1

Glyoxalase 1






Oxidized human serum albumin


Insulin growth factor-1






Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate


Diastolic blood pressure


Systolic blood pressure


Policlinico Tor Vergata


AGE cell receptor


Randomized clinical trials


Reactive oxygen species


Standard deviation


AGE soluble receptor


Tumor necrosis factor-α



We would like to thank Caterina Gola for her English language revision.


The present study was supported by Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana; by Mission: Sustainability Grant to A.B. [Decreto Rettorale 2817/2016].

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

Ethical Standard Statement

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee “Comitato Etico Indipendente”—Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Policlinico Tor Vergata (experimentation Register Number 60/16) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UOC of Internal Medicine-Center of Hypertension and Nephrology Unit, Department of Systems MedicineUniversity of Rome Tor VergataRomeItaly
  2. 2.PhD School of Applied Medical-Surgical SciencesUniversity of Rome Tor VergataRomeItaly
  3. 3.Department of Chemical Sciences and TechnologiesUniversity of Rome Tor VergataRomeItaly
  4. 4.Department of Clinical Medicine-Nephrology UnitUniversity of Rome SapienzaRomeItaly
  5. 5.IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Department of Human Sciences and Promotion of the Quality of LifeOpen University San Raffaele RomaRomeItaly
  6. 6.Department of Experimental MedicineUniversity of Rome Tor VergataRomeItaly
  7. 7.Laboratory of Clinical MicrobiologyPoliclinico Tor VergataRomeItaly
  8. 8.Laboratory of Biometry, Department of Systems MedicineUniversity of Rome Tor VergataRomeItaly
  9. 9.Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana, Palazzo delle Federazioni Sportive NazionaliRomeItaly

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