The healthy Nordic diet for blood glucose control: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials

  • Alireza Zimorovat
  • Mohammad Mohammadi
  • Nahid Ramezani-Jolfaie
  • Amin Salehi-AbargoueiEmail author
Review Article



Investigations on the possible effect of the Nordic diet (ND) on the glycemic control and the risk of diabetes have led to inconsistent results. The present study tried to determine the effect of the ND on the markers of blood glucose control using a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs).


Predefined keywords were used to search PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar up to April 2019. The random effects model was used to compute the overall estimates.


In total, six RCTs with 618 participants (6–26 weeks of follow-up period) were included in the present study. The meta-analysis revealed that the ND might not have a considerable effect on fasting blood glucose levels [weighted mean difference (WMD) = −0.05 mmol/l, 95% CI − 0.13, 0.01, P = 0.112]. In contrast, the analyses showed that the ND significantly reduces serum insulin concentrations (WMD = −1.12 mU/l, 95% CI − 1.84, − 0.39, P = 0.002) and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (WMD = − 0.34, 95% CI − 0.53, − 0.14, P = 0.001) compared to control diets. The effect on serum insulin levels was sensitive to one of the included studies. This dietary pattern did not significantly affect 2-h post-prandial blood glucose and Matsuda index.


Adherence to the ND might improve serum insulin and HOMA-IR levels; however, this effect was not confirmed for other markers of blood glucose control. Future well-designed and long-term clinical trials are highly recommended.


Nordic diet Baltic sea diet Fasting blood sugar Insulin HOMA-IR Meta-analysis 


Authors’ contribution

The authors’ contribution was as follows: ASA, MM, and NRJ conceived and designed the research; MM and NRJ conducted the systematic research and study selection; MM, NRJ, and AZ extracted data; ASA and MM analyzed data; AZ, MM and ASA wrote and edited the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


The study was funded by Nutrition and Food Security research center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran (Grant No. 5961).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest to report for the present study.

Ethical standard

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Not applicable.

Supplementary material

592_2019_1369_MOESM1_ESM.docx (228 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 227 kb)


  1. 1.
    International Diabetes Federation (2016) IDF seventh edition. Accessed May 2019
  2. 2.
    WHO (2016) Fact sheet no. 312: diabetes. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zandbergen AA, Sijbrands EJ, Lamberts SW, Bootsma AH (2006) Normotensive women with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria are at high risk for macrovascular disease. Diabetes Care 29(8):1851–1855. Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mahajan A, Go MJ, Zhang W et al (2014) Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility. Nat Genet 46(3):234–244. Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG et al (2001) Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 344(18):1343–1350. Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    American Diabetes Association (2017) 4. Lifestyle management. Diabetes Care 40(Suppl 1):S33–S43. Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    American Diabetes Association (2017) 9. Cardiovascular disease and risk management. Diabetes Care 40(Suppl 1):S75–S87. Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brug J, Oenema A (2006) Healthful nutrition promotion in Europe: goals, target populations, and strategies. Patient Educ Couns 63(1–2):255–257Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shirani F, Salehi-Abargouei A, Azadbakht L (2013) Effects of dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet on some risk for developing type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis on controlled clinical trials. Nutrition 29(7–8):939–947. Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kastorini CM, Milionis HJ, Esposito K, Giugliano D, Goudevenos JA, Panagiotakos DB (2011) The effect of Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome and its components: a meta-analysis of 50 studies and 534,906 individuals. J Am Coll Cardiol 57(11):1299–1313. Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mithril C, Dragsted LO, Meyer C, Blauert E, Holt MK, Astrup A (2012) Guidelines for the New Nordic Diet. Public Health Nutr 15(10):1941–1947. Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Uusitupa M, Hermansen K, Savolainen MJ et al (2013) Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and inflammation markers in metabolic syndrome—a randomized study (SYSDIET). J Intern Med 274(1):52–66. Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sofi F, Cesari F, Abbate R, Gensini GF, Casini A (2008) Adherence to Mediterranean diet and health status: meta-analysis. BMJ (Clin Res Ed) 337:a1344. Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM et al (2001) Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. N Engl J Med 344(1):3–10. Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Whelton PK, He J, Appel LJ et al (2002) Primary prevention of hypertension: clinical and public health advisory from The National High Blood Pressure Education Program. JAMA 288(15):1882–1888Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ramezani-Jolfaie N, Mohammadi M, Salehi-Abargouei A (2018) The effect of healthy Nordic diet on cardio-metabolic markers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Eur J Nutr. Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sakhaei R, Ramezani-Jolfaie N, Mohammadi M, Salehi-Abargouei A (2019) The healthy Nordic dietary pattern has no effect on inflammatory markers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Nutrition 58:140–148. Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Poulsen SK, Due A, Jordy AB et al (2014) Health effect of the New Nordic Diet in adults with increased waist circumference: a 6-mo randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 99(1):35–45. Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fritzen AM, Lundsgaard AM, Jordy AB et al (2015) New Nordic Diet—induced weight loss is accompanied by changes in metabolism and AMPK signaling in adipose tissue. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 100(9):3509–3519. Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Adamsson V, Reumark A, Fredriksson IB et al (2011) Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolaemic subjects: a randomized controlled trial (NORDIET). J Intern Med 269(2):150–159. Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Salehi-abargouei A, Zimorovat A, Mohammadi M, Ramezani-Jolfaie N (2017) Effects of Nordic diet on glycemic control in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. PROSPERO. CRD42017058954. Cited 3 Apr 2017
  22. 22.
    Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J et al (2009) The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. PLoS Med 6(7):e1000100. Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Higgins JP, Green S (2011) Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions, vol 4. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    DerSimonian R, Laird N (1986) Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 7(3):177–188Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Higgins JP, Thompson SG (2002) Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat Med 21(11):1539–1558. Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Egger M, Davey-Smith G, Altman D (2008) Systematic reviews in health care: meta-analysis in context. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C (1997) Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ (Clin Res Ed) 315(7109):629–634Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Andersen R, Biltoft-Jensen A, Andersen EW et al (2015) Effects of school meals based on the New Nordic Diet on intake of signature foods: a randomised controlled trial. The OPUS School Meal Study. Br J Nutr 114(5):772–779. Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Biltoft-Jensen A, Damsgaard CT, Andersen R et al (2015) Accuracy of self-reported intake of signature foods in a school meal intervention study: comparison between control and intervention period. Br J Nutr 114(4):635–644. Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Damsgaard CT, Dalskov SM, Laursen RP et al (2014) Provision of healthy school meals does not affect the metabolic syndrome score in 8–11-year-old children, but reduces cardiometabolic risk markers despite increasing waist circumference. Br J Nutr 112(11):1826–1836. Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Damsgaard CT, Dalskov SM, Petersen RA et al (2012) Design of the OPUS School Meal Study: a randomised controlled trial assessing the impact of serving school meals based on the New Nordic Diet. Scand J Public Health 40(8):693–703. Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Damsgaard CT, Ritz C, Dalskov SM et al (2016) Associations between school meal-induced dietary changes and metabolic syndrome markers in 8–11-year-old Danish children. Eur J Nutr 55(5):1973–1984. Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Petersen RA, Damsgaard CT, Dalskov SM et al (2015) Effects of school meals with weekly fish servings on vitamin D status in Danish children: secondary outcomes from the OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study. J Nutr Sci. Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sorensen LB, Damsgaard CT, Dalskov SM et al (2015) Diet-induced changes in iron and n-3 fatty acid status and associations with cognitive performance in 8–11-year-old Danish children: secondary analyses of the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet School Meal Study. Br J Nutr 114(10):1623–1637. Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sorensen LB, Dyssegaard CB, Damsgaard CT et al (2015) The effects of Nordic school meals on concentration and school performance in 8- to 11-year-old children in the OPUS School Meal Study: a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial. Br J Nutr 113(8):1280–1291. Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Thorsen AV, Lassen AD, Andersen EW et al (2015) Plate waste and intake of school lunch based on the new Nordic diet and on packed lunches: a randomised controlled trial in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. J Nutr Sci. Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Andersen R, Biltoft-Jensen A, Christensen T et al (2014) Dietary effects of introducing school meals based on the New Nordic Diet—a randomised controlled trial in Danish children. The OPUS School Meal Study. Br J Nutr 111(11):1967–1976. Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Adamsson V, Cederholm T, Vessby B, Riserus U (2014) Influence of a healthy Nordic diet on serum fatty acid composition and associations with blood lipoproteins—results from the NORDIET study. Food Nutr Res. Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Andersen MBS, Rinnan A, Manach C et al (2014) Untargeted metabolomics as a screening tool for estimating compliance to a dietary pattern. J Proteome Res 13(3):1405–1418. Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Brader L, Rejnmark L, Carlberg C et al (2014) Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial (SYSDIET). Eur J Nutr 53(4):1123–1134. Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Brader L, Uusitupa M, Dragsted LO, Hermansen K (2014) Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on ambulatory blood pressure in metabolic syndrome: a randomized SYSDIET sub-study. Eur J Clin Nutr 68(1):57–63. Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cuparencu CS, Andersen MBS, Gürdeniz G et al (2016) Identification of urinary biomarkers after consumption of sea buckthorn and strawberry, by untargeted LC–MS metabolomics: a meal study in adult men. Metabolomics 12(2):1–20. Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hanhineva K, Lankinen MA, Pedret A et al (2015) Nontargeted metabolite profiling discriminates diet-specific biomarkers for consumption of whole grains, fatty fish, and bilberries in a randomized controlled trial. J Nutr 145(1):7–17. Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Huseinovic E, Bertz F, Agelii ML, Johansson EH, Winkvist A, Brekke HK (2016) Effectiveness of a weight loss intervention in postpartum women: results from a randomized controlled trial in primary health care. Am J Clin Nutr 104(2):362–370. Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jobs E, Adamsson V, Larsson A et al (2014) Influence of a prudent diet on circulating cathepsin S in humans. Nutr J. Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Khakimov B, Poulsen SK, Savorani F et al (2016) New Nordic diet versus average Danish diet: a randomized controlled trial revealed healthy long-term effects of the new Nordic diet by GC–MS blood plasma metabolomics. J Proteome Res 15(6):1939–1954. Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lankinen M, Schwab U, Kolehmainen M et al (2016) A healthy Nordic diet alters the plasma lipidomic profile in adults with features of metabolic syndrome in a multicenter randomized dietary intervention. J Nutr 146(4):662–672. Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Leder L, Kolehmainen M, Narverud I et al (2016) Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to an oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a SYSDIET sub-study. Genes Nutr. Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Magnusdottir OK, Landberg R, Gunnarsdottir I et al (2013) Plasma alkylresorcinols reflect important whole-grain components of a healthy Nordic diet. J Nutr 143(9):1383–1390. Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Marckmann P, Sandstrom B, Jespersen J (1995) Food intake of Danes and cardiac risk factors. Ugeskr Laeger 157(12):1667–1671Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Marckmann P, Sandström B, Jespersen J (1994) Low-fat, high-fiber diet favorably affects several independent risk markers of ischemic heart disease: observations on blood lipids, coagulation, and fibrinolysis from a trial of middle-aged Danes. Am J Clin Nutr 59(4):935–939Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Poulsen S, Frost S, Rasmussen L, Astrup A, Larsen T (2011) Weight loss after 12 weeks with new Nordic diet vs. average Danish diet provided ad libitum—a randomized controlled trial using the shop model. Ann Nutr Metab 58:289Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Roager HM, Licht TR, Poulsen SK, Larsen TM, Bahl MI (2014) Microbial enterotypes, inferred by the prevotella-to-bacteroides ratio, remained stable during a 6-month randomized controlled diet intervention with the New Nordic Diet. Appl Environ Microbiol 80(3):1142–1149. Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Salomo L, Poulsen SK, Rix M, Kamper AL, Larsen TM, Astrup A (2016) The New Nordic Diet: phosphorus content and absorption. Eur J Nutr 55(3):991–996. Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sandstrom B, Marckmann P, Bindslev N (1992) An eight-month controlled study of a low-fat high-fibre diet: effects on blood lipids and blood pressure in healthy young subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 46(2):95–109Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Andersson J, Mellberg C, Otten J et al (2016) Left ventricular remodelling changes without concomitant loss of myocardial fat after long-term dietary intervention. Int J Cardiol 216:92–96. Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Blomquist C, Alvehus M, Buren J et al (2017) Attenuated low-grade inflammation following long-term dietary intervention in postmenopausal women with obesity. Obesity 25(5):892–900. Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Boraxbekk CJ, Stomby A, Ryberg M et al (2015) Diet-induced weight loss alters functional brain responses during an episodic memory task. Obes Facts 8:261–272. Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Chorell E, Ryberg M, Larsson C et al (2016) Plasma metabolomic response to postmenopausal weight loss induced by different diets. Metabolomics. Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Mellberg C, Sandberg S, Ryberg M et al (2014) Long-term effects of a Palaeolithic-type diet in obese postmenopausal women: a 2-year randomized trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 68(3):350–357. Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Otten J, Mellberg C, Ryberg M et al (2016) Strong and persistent effect on liver fat with a Paleolithic diet during a two-year intervention. Int J Obes 40(5):747–753. Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Adamsson V, Reumark A, Marklund M, Larsson A, Riserus U (2015) Role of a prudent breakfast in improving cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with hypercholesterolemia: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Nutr 34(1):20–26. Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Magnusdottir OK, Landberg R, Gunnarsdottir I et al (2014) Plasma alkylresorcinols C17:0/C21:0 ratio, a biomarker of relative whole-grain rye intake, is associated to insulin sensitivity: a randomized study. Eur J Clin Nutr 68(4):453–458. Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Magnusdottir OK, Landberg R, Gunnarsdottir I et al (2014) Whole grain rye intake, reflected by a biomarker, is associated with favorable blood lipid outcomes in subjects with the metabolic syndrome—a randomized study. PLoS ONE 9(10):e110827. Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ulven SM, Leder L, Elind E et al (2016) Exchanging a few commercial, regularly consumed food items with improved fat quality reduces total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr. Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Marklund M, Magnusdottir OK, Rosqvist F et al (2014) A dietary biomarker approach captures compliance and cardiometabolic effects of a healthy Nordic diet in individuals with metabolic syndrome. J Nutr 144(10):1642–1649. Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Darwiche G, Höglund P, Roth B et al (2016) An Okinawan-based Nordic diet improves anthropometry, metabolic control, and health-related quality of life in Scandinavian patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot trial. Food Nutr Res. Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lankinen M, Kolehmainen M, Jaaskelainen T et al (2014) Effects of whole grain, fish and bilberries on serum metabolic profile and lipid transfer protein activities: a randomized trial (Sysdimet). PLoS ONE 9(2):e90352. Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kolehmainen M, Ulven SM, Paananen J et al (2015) Healthy Nordic diet downregulates the expression of genes involved in inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue in individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 101(1):228–239. Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    de Mello VD, Schwab U, Kolehmainen M et al (2011) A diet high in fatty fish, bilberries and wholegrain products improves markers of endothelial function and inflammation in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism in a randomised controlled trial: the Sysdimet study. Diabetologia 54(11):2755–2767. Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Li G, Zhang P, Wang J et al (2008) The long-term effect of lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes in the China Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study: a 20-year follow-up study. Lancet 371(9626):1783–1789. Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Knowler WC, Fowler SE, Hamman RF et al (2009) 10-Year follow-up of diabetes incidence and weight loss in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. Lancet 374(9702):1677–1686. Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Cho SS, Qi L, Fahey GC Jr, Klurfeld DM (2013) Consumption of cereal fiber, mixtures of whole grains and bran, and whole grains and risk reduction in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 98(2):594–619. Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Franz MJ, Boucher JL, Rutten-Ramos S, VanWormer JJ (2015) Lifestyle weight-loss intervention outcomes in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Acad Nutr Diet 115(9):1447–1463. Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rock CL, Flatt SW, Pakiz B et al (2014) Weight loss, glycemic control, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in response to differential diet composition in a weight loss program in type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 37(6):1573–1580. Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Burton-Freeman B (2000) Dietary fiber and energy regulation. J Nutr 130(2S Suppl):272s–275s. Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Overby NC, Sonestedt E, Laaksonen DE, Birgisdottir BE (2013) Dietary fiber and the glycemic index: a background paper for the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Food Nutr Res. Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Blaak EE, Antoine JM, Benton D et al (2012) Impact of postprandial glycaemia on health and prevention of disease. Obes Rev 13(10):923–984. Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Chandalia M, Garg A, Lutjohann D, von Bergmann K, Grundy SM, Brinkley LJ (2000) Beneficial effects of high dietary fiber intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 342(19):1392–1398. Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Santesso N, Akl EA, Bianchi M et al (2012) Effects of higher- versus lower-protein diets on health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr 66(7):780–788. Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Weigle DS, Breen PA, Matthys CC et al (2005) A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 82(1):41–48. Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hirasawa A, Tsumaya K, Awaji T et al (2005) Free fatty acids regulate gut incretin glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion through GPR120. Nat Med 11(1):90–94. Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Oh DY, Talukdar S, Bae EJ et al (2010) GPR120 is an omega-3 fatty acid receptor mediating potent anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects. Cell 142(5):687–698. Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Briscoe CP, Tadayyon M, Andrews JL et al (2003) The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR40 is activated by medium and long chain fatty acids. J Biol Chem 278(13):11303–11311. Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Gannon NP, Conn CA, Vaughan RA (2015) Dietary stimulators of GLUT4 expression and translocation in skeletal muscle: a mini-review. Mol Nutr Food Res 59(1):48–64. Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Newsholme P, Cruzat VF, Keane KN, Carlessi R, de Bittencourt PI Jr (2016) Molecular mechanisms of ROS production and oxidative stress in diabetes. Biochem J 473(24):4527–4550. Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Xu H, Luo J, Huang J, Wen Q (2018) Flavonoids intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Medicine 97(19):e0686. Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Grosso G, Micek A, Godos J et al (2017) Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and mortality in prospective cohort studies: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 185(12):1304–1316. Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wang X, Ouyang YY, Liu J, Zhao G (2014) Flavonoid intake and risk of CVD: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Br J Nutr 111(1):1–11. Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Grosso G, Godos J, Lamuela-Raventos R et al (2017) A comprehensive meta-analysis on dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and cancer risk: level of evidence and limitations. Mol Nutr Food Res. Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Williamson G, Manach C (2005) Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. II. Review of 93 intervention studies. Am J Clin Nutr 81(1 Suppl):243s–255s. Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Ross JA, Kasum CM (2002) Dietary flavonoids: bioavailability, metabolic effects, and safety. Annu Rev Nutr 22:19–34. Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Bravo L (1998) Polyphenols: chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism, and nutritional significance. Nutr Rev 56(11):317–333Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kim DJ, Xun P, Liu K et al (2010) Magnesium intake in relation to systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and the incidence of diabetes. Diabetes Care 33(12):2604–2610. Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Song Y, Manson JE, Buring JE, Liu S (2004) Dietary magnesium intake in relation to plasma insulin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care 27(1):59–65Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kao WH, Folsom AR, Nieto FJ, Mo JP, Watson RL, Brancati FL (1999) Serum and dietary magnesium and the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Arch Intern Med 159(18):2151–2159Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Humphries S, Kushner H, Falkner B (1999) Low dietary magnesium is associated with insulin resistance in a sample of young, nondiabetic Black Americans. Am J Hypertens 12(8 Pt 1):747–756Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Dong JY, Xun P, He K, Qin LQ (2011) Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Diab Care 34(9):2116–2122. Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Huo R, Du T, Xu Y et al (2015) Effects of Mediterranean-style diet on glycemic control, weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors among type 2 diabetes individuals: a meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr 69(11):1200–1208. Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lacoppidan SA, Kyro C, Loft S et al (2015) Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index is associated with a lower risk of type-2 diabetes—the Danish diet, Cancer and Health Cohort Study. Nutrients 7(10):8633–8644. Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kanerva N, Rissanen H, Knekt P, Havulinna AS, Eriksson JG, Mannisto S (2014) The healthy Nordic diet and incidence of type 2 diabetes—10-year follow-up. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 106(2):e34–e37. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nutrition and Food Security Research CenterShahid Sadoughi University of Medical SciencesYazdIran
  2. 2.Department of Nutrition, School of Public HealthShahid Sadoughi University of Medical SciencesYazdIran

Personalised recommendations