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The healthy Nordic diet for blood glucose control: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials

  • Alireza Zimorovat
  • Mohammad Mohammadi
  • Nahid Ramezani-Jolfaie
  • Amin Salehi-AbargoueiEmail author
Review Article

Abstract

Aims

Investigations on the possible effect of the Nordic diet (ND) on the glycemic control and the risk of diabetes have led to inconsistent results. The present study tried to determine the effect of the ND on the markers of blood glucose control using a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs).

Methods

Predefined keywords were used to search PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar up to April 2019. The random effects model was used to compute the overall estimates.

Results

In total, six RCTs with 618 participants (6–26 weeks of follow-up period) were included in the present study. The meta-analysis revealed that the ND might not have a considerable effect on fasting blood glucose levels [weighted mean difference (WMD) = −0.05 mmol/l, 95% CI − 0.13, 0.01, P = 0.112]. In contrast, the analyses showed that the ND significantly reduces serum insulin concentrations (WMD = −1.12 mU/l, 95% CI − 1.84, − 0.39, P = 0.002) and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (WMD = − 0.34, 95% CI − 0.53, − 0.14, P = 0.001) compared to control diets. The effect on serum insulin levels was sensitive to one of the included studies. This dietary pattern did not significantly affect 2-h post-prandial blood glucose and Matsuda index.

Conclusions

Adherence to the ND might improve serum insulin and HOMA-IR levels; however, this effect was not confirmed for other markers of blood glucose control. Future well-designed and long-term clinical trials are highly recommended.

Keywords

Nordic diet Baltic sea diet Fasting blood sugar Insulin HOMA-IR Meta-analysis 

Notes

Authors’ contribution

The authors’ contribution was as follows: ASA, MM, and NRJ conceived and designed the research; MM and NRJ conducted the systematic research and study selection; MM, NRJ, and AZ extracted data; ASA and MM analyzed data; AZ, MM and ASA wrote and edited the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding

The study was funded by Nutrition and Food Security research center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran (Grant No. 5961).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest to report for the present study.

Ethical standard

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Not applicable.

Supplementary material

592_2019_1369_MOESM1_ESM.docx (228 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 227 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nutrition and Food Security Research CenterShahid Sadoughi University of Medical SciencesYazdIran
  2. 2.Department of Nutrition, School of Public HealthShahid Sadoughi University of Medical SciencesYazdIran

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