Analysis of S100A12 plasma levels in hyperlipidemic subjects with or without familial hypercholesterolemia
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Inflammation is a key regulatory process that links hypercholesterolemia and immune mechanisms promoting atherosclerosis. Inflammatory biomarkers may be helpful to better define the atherosclerotic burden in patients with high cholesterol levels such as familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Our aim was to evaluate the concentration of S100A12 protein in FH patients and its association with pulse wave velocity (PWV).
We measured glucose and lipid profile, S100A12, sRAGE, esRAGE and PWV in 39 patients with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of FH and 39 hypercholesterolemic subjects without a clinical diagnosis of FH (Dutch score ≤ 3). All subjects were on statin treatment at the time of the enrollment.
No difference of glucose and lipid profile was found in the two groups. FH patients had higher S100A12 plasma levels than non-FH subjects (12.87 ± 4.82 vs. 8.57 ± 4.87 ng/mL, p < 0.01). No difference of hs-CRP, sRAGE and esRAGE was found between the two groups. Also, PWV was higher in FH patients than non-FH subjects (8.63 ± 0.92 vs. 6.68 ± 0.73 m/s, p < 0.05). Finally, S100A12 was independently correlated with age (p < 0.01), genetic mutation (p < 0.01) and PWV (p < 0.001).
FH patients exhibited higher S100A12 levels than non-FH subjects. A novel vascular inflammation pathway, other than hs-CRP, might be useful to better characterize cardiovascular risk profile.
KeywordsFamilial hypercholesterolemia S100A12 Inflammation Pulse wave velocity Cardiovascular risk
F.P. is the guarantor of this work and, as such, had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. All authors approved the final version. The authors wish to thank the Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine for financial support in the context of the 2016/2018 Department Research Plan of University of Catania (Project #A). The authors wish to thank the Lipid TransPort Disorders Italian Genetic Network (LIPIGEN) study for financial support to carry out genetic analysis. The authors wish to thank the Scientific Bureau of the University of Catania for language support.
RS contributed to the study design, researched data, contributed to the discussion, and wrote the article. ADP contributed to the study design, researched data, contributed to the discussion, and reviewed and edited the article. FU, VF, SDM, SM, AS, AF, researched data, contributed to the discussion, and reviewed and edited the article. SP and AMR contributed to the study design and discussion, and reviewed and edited the article. FP designed the study, researched data, contributed to the discussion, and reviewed and edited the article.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
This study has been approved by the local ethic committee in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was obtained from each participants included in the study.
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