Normoglycaemic control with a selfmade fully closed-loop insulin delivery system during emergency surgery: an extemporaneous stress test
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Hybrid closed-loop insulin delivery systems have entered clinical use and progressed from supervised safety trials  to free-living home studies . In 2017, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first hybrid closed-loop system  making the “Artificial Pancreas” a realistic therapeutic option for an eligible proportion of people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Hybrid closed-loop insulin delivery systems are characterized by continuous glucose monitoring and algorithm-directed insulin pump delivery providing automatically the basal insulin requirement. However, in contrast to a fully closed-loop approach, prandial insulin boluses need still to be carried out by the patient himself.
Generally, affected people are frequently impatient with the progress of medical developments, completion of clinical trials or final regulatory approvals. Some individuals try to improve and advance medical technology more rapidly by themselves. In particular, there is an...
KeywordsDiabetes type 1 Closed insulin delivery system Perioperative glycaemic control
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare no duality of interest.
Human and animal rights
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008.
The patient gave his signed consent for the material presented in the publication.
- 3.FDA News Release. FDA approves first automated insulin delivery device for Type 1 diabetes. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm522974.htm